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configobj.py

# configobj.py
# A config file reader/writer that supports nested sections in config files.
# Copyright (C) 2005-2006 Michael Foord, Nicola Larosa
# E-mail: fuzzyman AT voidspace DOT org DOT uk
#         nico AT tekNico DOT net

# ConfigObj 4
# http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/configobj.html

# Released subject to the BSD License
# Please see http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/license.shtml

# Scripts maintained at http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/index.shtml
# For information about bugfixes, updates and support, please join the
# ConfigObj mailing list:
# http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/configobj-develop
# Comments, suggestions and bug reports welcome.

from __future__ import generators

"""
    >>> z = ConfigObj()
    >>> z['a'] = 'a'
    >>> z['sect'] = {
    ...    'subsect': {
    ...         'a': 'fish',
    ...         'b': 'wobble',
    ...     },
    ...     'member': 'value',
    ... }
    >>> x = ConfigObj(z.write())
    >>> z == x
    1
"""

import sys
INTP_VER = sys.version_info[:2]
if INTP_VER < (2, 2):
    raise RuntimeError("Python v.2.2 or later needed")

import os, re
import compiler
from types import StringTypes
from warnings import warn
from codecs import BOM_UTF8, BOM_UTF16, BOM_UTF16_BE, BOM_UTF16_LE

# A dictionary mapping BOM to
# the encoding to decode with, and what to set the
# encoding attribute to.
BOMS = {
    BOM_UTF8: ('utf_8', None),
    BOM_UTF16_BE: ('utf16_be', 'utf_16'),
    BOM_UTF16_LE: ('utf16_le', 'utf_16'),
    BOM_UTF16: ('utf_16', 'utf_16'),
    }
# All legal variants of the BOM codecs.
# TODO: the list of aliases is not meant to be exhaustive, is there a
#   better way ?
BOM_LIST = {
    'utf_16': 'utf_16',
    'u16': 'utf_16',
    'utf16': 'utf_16',
    'utf-16': 'utf_16',
    'utf16_be': 'utf16_be',
    'utf_16_be': 'utf16_be',
    'utf-16be': 'utf16_be',
    'utf16_le': 'utf16_le',
    'utf_16_le': 'utf16_le',
    'utf-16le': 'utf16_le',
    'utf_8': 'utf_8',
    'u8': 'utf_8',
    'utf': 'utf_8',
    'utf8': 'utf_8',
    'utf-8': 'utf_8',
    }

# Map of encodings to the BOM to write.
BOM_SET = {
    'utf_8': BOM_UTF8,
    'utf_16': BOM_UTF16,
    'utf16_be': BOM_UTF16_BE,
    'utf16_le': BOM_UTF16_LE,
    None: BOM_UTF8
    }

try:
    from validate import VdtMissingValue
except ImportError:
    VdtMissingValue = None

try:
    enumerate
except NameError:
    def enumerate(obj):
        """enumerate for Python 2.2."""
        i = -1
        for item in obj:
            i += 1
            yield i, item

try:
    True, False
except NameError:
    True, False = 1, 0


__version__ = '4.3.0alpha2'

__revision__ = '$Id: configobj.py 156 2006-01-31 14:57:08Z fuzzyman $'

__docformat__ = "restructuredtext en"

# NOTE: Does it make sense to have the following in __all__ ?
# NOTE: DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE, NUM_INDENT_SPACES, MAX_INTERPOL_DEPTH
# NOTE: If used via ``from configobj import...``
# NOTE: They are effectively read only
__all__ = (
    '__version__',
    'DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE',
    'NUM_INDENT_SPACES',
    'MAX_INTERPOL_DEPTH',
    'ConfigObjError',
    'NestingError',
    'ParseError',
    'DuplicateError',
    'ConfigspecError',
    'ConfigObj',
    'SimpleVal',
    'InterpolationError',
    'InterpolationDepthError',
    'MissingInterpolationOption',
    'RepeatSectionError',
    '__docformat__',
    'flatten_errors',
)

DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE = ' '
NUM_INDENT_SPACES = 4
MAX_INTERPOL_DEPTH = 10

OPTION_DEFAULTS = {
    'interpolation': True,
    'raise_errors': False,
    'list_values': True,
    'create_empty': False,
    'file_error': False,
    'configspec': None,
    'stringify': True,
    # option may be set to one of ('', ' ', '\t')
    'indent_type': None,
    'encoding': None,
    'default_encoding': None,
    'unrepr': False,
    'write_empty_values': False,
}

def getObj(s):
    s = "a=" + s
    p = compiler.parse(s)
    return p.getChildren()[1].getChildren()[0].getChildren()[1]

class UnknownType(Exception):
    pass

class Builder:

    def build(self, o):
        m = getattr(self, 'build_' + o.__class__.__name__, None)
        if m is None:
            raise UnknownType(o.__class__.__name__)
        return m(o)

    def build_List(self, o):
        return map(self.build, o.getChildren())

    def build_Const(self, o):
        return o.value

    def build_Dict(self, o):
        d = {}
        i = iter(map(self.build, o.getChildren()))
        for el in i:
            d[el] = i.next()
        return d

    def build_Tuple(self, o):
        return tuple(self.build_List(o))

    def build_Name(self, o):
        if o.name == 'None':
            return None
        if o.name == 'True':
            return True
        if o.name == 'False':
            return False

        # An undefinted Name
        raise UnknownType('Undefined Name')

    def build_Add(self, o):
        real, imag = map(self.build_Const, o.getChildren())
        try:
            real = float(real)
        except TypeError:
            raise UnknownType('Add')
        if not isinstance(imag, complex) or imag.real != 0.0:
            raise UnknownType('Add')
        return real+imag

    def build_Getattr(self, o):
        parent = self.build(o.expr)
        return getattr(parent, o.attrname)

def unrepr(s):
    if not s:
        return s
    return Builder().build(getObj(s))

00219 class ConfigObjError(SyntaxError):
    """
    This is the base class for all errors that ConfigObj raises.
    It is a subclass of SyntaxError.

    >>> raise ConfigObjError
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    ConfigObjError
    """
    def __init__(self, message='', line_number=None, line=''):
        self.line = line
        self.line_number = line_number
        self.message = message
        SyntaxError.__init__(self, message)

00234 class NestingError(ConfigObjError):
    """
    This error indicates a level of nesting that doesn't match.

    >>> raise NestingError
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    NestingError
    """

00243 class ParseError(ConfigObjError):
    """
    This error indicates that a line is badly written.
    It is neither a valid ``key = value`` line,
    nor a valid section marker line.

    >>> raise ParseError
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    ParseError
    """

00254 class DuplicateError(ConfigObjError):
    """
    The keyword or section specified already exists.

    >>> raise DuplicateError
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    DuplicateError
    """

00263 class ConfigspecError(ConfigObjError):
    """
    An error occured whilst parsing a configspec.

    >>> raise ConfigspecError
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    ConfigspecError
    """

00272 class InterpolationError(ConfigObjError):
    """Base class for the two interpolation errors."""

00275 class InterpolationDepthError(InterpolationError):
    """Maximum interpolation depth exceeded in string interpolation."""

00278     def __init__(self, option):
        """
        >>> raise InterpolationDepthError('yoda')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        InterpolationDepthError: max interpolation depth exceeded in value "yoda".
        """
        InterpolationError.__init__(
            self,
            'max interpolation depth exceeded in value "%s".' % option)

00288 class RepeatSectionError(ConfigObjError):
    """
    This error indicates additional sections in a section with a
    ``__many__`` (repeated) section.

    >>> raise RepeatSectionError
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    RepeatSectionError
    """

00298 class MissingInterpolationOption(InterpolationError):
    """A value specified for interpolation was missing."""

00301     def __init__(self, option):
        """
        >>> raise MissingInterpolationOption('yoda')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        MissingInterpolationOption: missing option "yoda" in interpolation.
        """
        InterpolationError.__init__(
            self,
            'missing option "%s" in interpolation.' % option)

00311 class Section(dict):
    """
    A dictionary-like object that represents a section in a config file.

    It does string interpolation if the 'interpolate' attribute
    of the 'main' object is set to True.

    Interpolation is tried first from the 'DEFAULT' section of this object,
    next from the 'DEFAULT' section of the parent, lastly the main object.

    A Section will behave like an ordered dictionary - following the
    order of the ``scalars`` and ``sections`` attributes.
    You can use this to change the order of members.

    Iteration follows the order: scalars, then sections.
    """

    _KEYCRE = re.compile(r"%\(([^)]*)\)s|.")

00330     def __init__(self, parent, depth, main, indict=None, name=None):
        """
        * parent is the section above
        * depth is the depth level of this section
        * main is the main ConfigObj
        * indict is a dictionary to initialise the section with
        """
        if indict is None:
            indict = {}
        dict.__init__(self)
        # used for nesting level *and* interpolation
        self.parent = parent
        # used for the interpolation attribute
        self.main = main
        # level of nesting depth of this Section
        self.depth = depth
        # the sequence of scalar values in this Section
        self.scalars = []
        # the sequence of sections in this Section
        self.sections = []
        # purely for information
        self.name = name
        # for comments :-)
        self.comments = {}
        self.inline_comments = {}
        # for the configspec
        self.configspec = {}
        self._order = []
        self._configspec_comments = {}
        self._configspec_inline_comments = {}
        self._cs_section_comments = {}
        self._cs_section_inline_comments = {}
        # for defaults
        self.defaults = []
        #
        # we do this explicitly so that __setitem__ is used properly
        # (rather than just passing to ``dict.__init__``)
        for entry in indict:
            self[entry] = indict[entry]

00370     def _interpolate(self, value):
        """Nicked from ConfigParser."""
        depth = MAX_INTERPOL_DEPTH
        # loop through this until it's done
        while depth:
            depth -= 1
            if value.find("%(") != -1:
                value = self._KEYCRE.sub(self._interpolation_replace, value)
            else:
                break
        else:
            raise InterpolationDepthError(value)
        return value

00384     def _interpolation_replace(self, match):
        """ """
        s = match.group(1)
        if s is None:
            return match.group()
        else:
            # switch off interpolation before we try and fetch anything !
            self.main.interpolation = False
            # try the 'DEFAULT' member of *this section* first
            val = self.get('DEFAULT', {}).get(s)
            # try the 'DEFAULT' member of the *parent section* next
            if val is None:
                val = self.parent.get('DEFAULT', {}).get(s)
            # last, try the 'DEFAULT' member of the *main section*
            if val is None:
                val = self.main.get('DEFAULT', {}).get(s)
            self.main.interpolation = True
            if val is None:
                raise MissingInterpolationOption(s)
            return val

00405     def __getitem__(self, key):
        """Fetch the item and do string interpolation."""
        val = dict.__getitem__(self, key)
        if self.main.interpolation and isinstance(val, StringTypes):
            return self._interpolate(val)
        return val

00412     def __setitem__(self, key, value, unrepr=False):
        """
        Correctly set a value.

        Making dictionary values Section instances.
        (We have to special case 'Section' instances - which are also dicts)

        Keys must be strings.
        Values need only be strings (or lists of strings) if
        ``main.stringify`` is set.

        `unrepr`` must be set when setting a value to a dictionary, without
        creating a new sub-section.
        """
        if not isinstance(key, StringTypes):
            raise ValueError, 'The key "%s" is not a string.' % key
        # add the comment
        if not self.comments.has_key(key):
            self.comments[key] = []
            self.inline_comments[key] = ''
        # remove the entry from defaults
        if key in self.defaults:
            self.defaults.remove(key)
        #
        if isinstance(value, Section):
            if not self.has_key(key):
                self.sections.append(key)
            dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
        elif isinstance(value, dict)and not unrepr:
            # First create the new depth level,
            # then create the section
            if not self.has_key(key):
                self.sections.append(key)
            new_depth = self.depth + 1
            dict.__setitem__(
                self,
                key,
                Section(
                    self,
                    new_depth,
                    self.main,
                    indict=value,
                    name=key))
        else:
            if not self.has_key(key):
                self.scalars.append(key)
            if not self.main.stringify:
                if isinstance(value, StringTypes):
                    pass
                elif isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
                    for entry in value:
                        if not isinstance(entry, StringTypes):
                            raise TypeError, (
                                'Value is not a string "%s".' % entry)
                else:
                    raise TypeError, 'Value is not a string "%s".' % value
            dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)

00470     def __delitem__(self, key):
        """Remove items from the sequence when deleting."""
        dict. __delitem__(self, key)
        if key in self.scalars:
            self.scalars.remove(key)
        else:
            self.sections.remove(key)
        del self.comments[key]
        del self.inline_comments[key]

00480     def get(self, key, default=None):
        """A version of ``get`` that doesn't bypass string interpolation."""
        try:
            return self[key]
        except KeyError:
            return default

00487     def update(self, indict):
        """
        A version of update that uses our ``__setitem__``.
        """
        for entry in indict:
            self[entry] = indict[entry]

00494     def pop(self, key, *args):
        """ """
        val = dict.pop(self, key, *args)
        if key in self.scalars:
            del self.comments[key]
            del self.inline_comments[key]
            self.scalars.remove(key)
        elif key in self.sections:
            del self.comments[key]
            del self.inline_comments[key]
            self.sections.remove(key)
        if self.main.interpolation and isinstance(val, StringTypes):
            return self._interpolate(val)
        return val

00509     def popitem(self):
        """Pops the first (key,val)"""
        sequence = (self.scalars + self.sections)
        if not sequence:
            raise KeyError, ": 'popitem(): dictionary is empty'"
        key = sequence[0]
        val =  self[key]
        del self[key]
        return key, val

00519     def clear(self):
        """
        A version of clear that also affects scalars/sections
        Also clears comments and configspec.

        Leaves other attributes alone :
            depth/main/parent are not affected
        """
        dict.clear(self)
        self.scalars = []
        self.sections = []
        self.comments = {}
        self.inline_comments = {}
        self.configspec = {}

00534     def setdefault(self, key, default=None):
        """A version of setdefault that sets sequence if appropriate."""
        try:
            return self[key]
        except KeyError:
            self[key] = default
            return self[key]

00542     def items(self):
        """ """
        return zip((self.scalars + self.sections), self.values())

00546     def keys(self):
        """ """
        return (self.scalars + self.sections)

00550     def values(self):
        """ """
        return [self[key] for key in (self.scalars + self.sections)]

00554     def iteritems(self):
        """ """
        return iter(self.items())

00558     def iterkeys(self):
        """ """
        return iter((self.scalars + self.sections))

    __iter__ = iterkeys

00564     def itervalues(self):
        """ """
        return iter(self.values())

    def __repr__(self):
        return '{%s}' % ', '.join([('%s: %s' % (repr(key), repr(self[key])))
            for key in (self.scalars + self.sections)])

    __str__ = __repr__

    # Extra methods - not in a normal dictionary

00576     def dict(self):
        """
        Return a deepcopy of self as a dictionary.

        All members that are ``Section`` instances are recursively turned to
        ordinary dictionaries - by calling their ``dict`` method.

        >>> n = a.dict()
        >>> n == a
        1
        >>> n is a
        0
        """
        newdict = {}
        for entry in self:
            this_entry = self[entry]
            if isinstance(this_entry, Section):
                this_entry = this_entry.dict()
            # XXX Modified to return tuples as tuples. -- niemeyer, 2006-04-24
            elif isinstance(this_entry, list):
                this_entry = list(this_entry)
            elif isinstance(this_entry, tuple):
                this_entry = tuple(this_entry)
            newdict[entry] = this_entry
        return newdict

00602     def merge(self, indict):
        """
        A recursive update - useful for merging config files.

        >>> a = '''[section1]
        ...     option1 = True
        ...     [[subsection]]
        ...     more_options = False
        ...     # end of file'''.splitlines()
        >>> b = '''# File is user.ini
        ...     [section1]
        ...     option1 = False
        ...     # end of file'''.splitlines()
        >>> c1 = ConfigObj(b)
        >>> c2 = ConfigObj(a)
        >>> c2.merge(c1)
        >>> c2
        {'section1': {'option1': 'False', 'subsection': {'more_options': 'False'}}}
        """
        for key, val in indict.items():
            if (key in self and isinstance(self[key], dict) and
                                isinstance(val, dict)):
                self[key].merge(val)
            else:
                self[key] = val

00628     def rename(self, oldkey, newkey):
        """
        Change a keyname to another, without changing position in sequence.

        Implemented so that transformations can be made on keys,
        as well as on values. (used by encode and decode)

        Also renames comments.
        """
        if oldkey in self.scalars:
            the_list = self.scalars
        elif oldkey in self.sections:
            the_list = self.sections
        else:
            raise KeyError, 'Key "%s" not found.' % oldkey
        pos = the_list.index(oldkey)
        #
        val = self[oldkey]
        dict.__delitem__(self, oldkey)
        dict.__setitem__(self, newkey, val)
        the_list.remove(oldkey)
        the_list.insert(pos, newkey)
        comm = self.comments[oldkey]
        inline_comment = self.inline_comments[oldkey]
        del self.comments[oldkey]
        del self.inline_comments[oldkey]
        self.comments[newkey] = comm
        self.inline_comments[newkey] = inline_comment

00657     def walk(self, function, raise_errors=True,
            call_on_sections=False, **keywargs):
        """
        Walk every member and call a function on the keyword and value.

        Return a dictionary of the return values

        If the function raises an exception, raise the errror
        unless ``raise_errors=False``, in which case set the return value to
        ``False``.

        Any unrecognised keyword arguments you pass to walk, will be pased on
        to the function you pass in.

        Note: if ``call_on_sections`` is ``True`` then - on encountering a
        subsection, *first* the function is called for the *whole* subsection,
        and then recurses into it's members. This means your function must be
        able to handle strings, dictionaries and lists. This allows you
        to change the key of subsections as well as for ordinary members. The
        return value when called on the whole subsection has to be discarded.

        See  the encode and decode methods for examples, including functions.

        .. caution::

            You can use ``walk`` to transform the names of members of a section
            but you mustn't add or delete members.

        >>> config = '''[XXXXsection]
        ... XXXXkey = XXXXvalue'''.splitlines()
        >>> cfg = ConfigObj(config)
        >>> cfg
        {'XXXXsection': {'XXXXkey': 'XXXXvalue'}}
        >>> def transform(section, key):
        ...     val = section[key]
        ...     newkey = key.replace('XXXX', 'CLIENT1')
        ...     section.rename(key, newkey)
        ...     if isinstance(val, (tuple, list, dict)):
        ...         pass
        ...     else:
        ...         val = val.replace('XXXX', 'CLIENT1')
        ...         section[newkey] = val
        >>> cfg.walk(transform, call_on_sections=True)
        {'CLIENT1section': {'CLIENT1key': None}}
        >>> cfg
        {'CLIENT1section': {'CLIENT1key': 'CLIENT1value'}}
        """
        out = {}
        # scalars first
        for i in range(len(self.scalars)):
            entry = self.scalars[i]
            try:
                val = function(self, entry, **keywargs)
                # bound again in case name has changed
                entry = self.scalars[i]
                out[entry] = val
            except Exception:
                if raise_errors:
                    raise
                else:
                    entry = self.scalars[i]
                    out[entry] = False
        # then sections
        for i in range(len(self.sections)):
            entry = self.sections[i]
            if call_on_sections:
                try:
                    function(self, entry, **keywargs)
                except Exception:
                    if raise_errors:
                        raise
                    else:
                        entry = self.sections[i]
                        out[entry] = False
                # bound again in case name has changed
                entry = self.sections[i]
            # previous result is discarded
            out[entry] = self[entry].walk(
                function,
                raise_errors=raise_errors,
                call_on_sections=call_on_sections,
                **keywargs)
        return out

00741     def decode(self, encoding):
        """
        Decode all strings and values to unicode, using the specified encoding.

        Works with subsections and list values.

        Uses the ``walk`` method.

        Testing ``encode`` and ``decode``.
        >>> m = ConfigObj(a)
        >>> m.decode('ascii')
        >>> def testuni(val):
        ...     for entry in val:
        ...         if not isinstance(entry, unicode):
        ...             print >> sys.stderr, type(entry)
        ...             raise AssertionError, 'decode failed.'
        ...         if isinstance(val[entry], dict):
        ...             testuni(val[entry])
        ...         elif not isinstance(val[entry], unicode):
        ...             raise AssertionError, 'decode failed.'
        >>> testuni(m)
        >>> m.encode('ascii')
        >>> a == m
        1
        """
        warn('use of ``decode`` is deprecated.', DeprecationWarning)
        def decode(section, key, encoding=encoding, warn=True):
            """ """
            val = section[key]
            if isinstance(val, (list, tuple)):
                newval = []
                for entry in val:
                    newval.append(entry.decode(encoding))
            elif isinstance(val, dict):
                newval = val
            else:
                newval = val.decode(encoding)
            newkey = key.decode(encoding)
            section.rename(key, newkey)
            section[newkey] = newval
        # using ``call_on_sections`` allows us to modify section names
        self.walk(decode, call_on_sections=True)

00784     def encode(self, encoding):
        """
        Encode all strings and values from unicode,
        using the specified encoding.

        Works with subsections and list values.
        Uses the ``walk`` method.
        """
        warn('use of ``encode`` is deprecated.', DeprecationWarning)
        def encode(section, key, encoding=encoding):
            """ """
            val = section[key]
            if isinstance(val, (list, tuple)):
                newval = []
                for entry in val:
                    newval.append(entry.encode(encoding))
            elif isinstance(val, dict):
                newval = val
            else:
                newval = val.encode(encoding)
            newkey = key.encode(encoding)
            section.rename(key, newkey)
            section[newkey] = newval
        self.walk(encode, call_on_sections=True)

00809     def istrue(self, key):
        """A deprecated version of ``as_bool``."""
        warn('use of ``istrue`` is deprecated. Use ``as_bool`` method '
                'instead.', DeprecationWarning)
        return self.as_bool(key)

00815     def as_bool(self, key):
        """
        Accepts a key as input. The corresponding value must be a string or
        the objects (``True`` or 1) or (``False`` or 0). We allow 0 and 1 to
        retain compatibility with Python 2.2.

        If the string is one of  ``True``, ``On``, ``Yes``, or ``1`` it returns
        ``True``.

        If the string is one of  ``False``, ``Off``, ``No``, or ``0`` it returns
        ``False``.

        ``as_bool`` is not case sensitive.

        Any other input will raise a ``ValueError``.

        >>> a = ConfigObj()
        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
        >>> a.as_bool('a')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        ValueError: Value "fish" is neither True nor False
        >>> a['b'] = 'True'
        >>> a.as_bool('b')
        1
        >>> a['b'] = 'off'
        >>> a.as_bool('b')
        0
        """
        val = self[key]
        if val == True:
            return True
        elif val == False:
            return False
        else:
            try:
                if not isinstance(val, StringTypes):
                    raise KeyError
                else:
                    return self.main._bools[val.lower()]
            except KeyError:
                raise ValueError('Value "%s" is neither True nor False' % val)

00857     def as_int(self, key):
        """
        A convenience method which coerces the specified value to an integer.

        If the value is an invalid literal for ``int``, a ``ValueError`` will
        be raised.

        >>> a = ConfigObj()
        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
        >>> a.as_int('a')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        ValueError: invalid literal for int(): fish
        >>> a['b'] = '1'
        >>> a.as_int('b')
        1
        >>> a['b'] = '3.2'
        >>> a.as_int('b')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        ValueError: invalid literal for int(): 3.2
        """
        return int(self[key])

00879     def as_float(self, key):
        """
        A convenience method which coerces the specified value to a float.

        If the value is an invalid literal for ``float``, a ``ValueError`` will
        be raised.

        >>> a = ConfigObj()
        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
        >>> a.as_float('a')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        ValueError: invalid literal for float(): fish
        >>> a['b'] = '1'
        >>> a.as_float('b')
        1.0
        >>> a['b'] = '3.2'
        >>> a.as_float('b')
        3.2000000000000002
        """
        return float(self[key])


00901 class ConfigObj(Section):
    """
    An object to read, create, and write config files.

    Testing with duplicate keys and sections.

    >>> c = '''
    ... [hello]
    ... member = value
    ... [hello again]
    ... member = value
    ... [ "hello" ]
    ... member = value
    ... '''
    >>> ConfigObj(c.split('\\n'), raise_errors = True)
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    DuplicateError: Duplicate section name at line 5.

    >>> d = '''
    ... [hello]
    ... member = value
    ... [hello again]
    ... member1 = value
    ... member2 = value
    ... 'member1' = value
    ... [ "and again" ]
    ... member = value
    ... '''
    >>> ConfigObj(d.split('\\n'), raise_errors = True)
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    DuplicateError: Duplicate keyword name at line 6.
    """

    _keyword = re.compile(r'''^ # line start
        (\s*)                   # indentation
        (                       # keyword
            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
            (?:[^'"=].*?)       # no quotes
        )
        \s*=\s*                 # divider
        (.*)                    # value (including list values and comments)
        $   # line end
        ''',
        re.VERBOSE)

    _sectionmarker = re.compile(r'''^
        (\s*)                     # 1: indentation
        ((?:\[\s*)+)              # 2: section marker open
        (                         # 3: section name open
            (?:"\s*\S.*?\s*")|    # at least one non-space with double quotes
            (?:'\s*\S.*?\s*')|    # at least one non-space with single quotes
            (?:[^'"\s].*?)        # at least one non-space unquoted
        )                         # section name close
        ((?:\s*\])+)              # 4: section marker close
        \s*(\#.*)?                # 5: optional comment
        $''',
        re.VERBOSE)

    # this regexp pulls list values out as a single string
    # or single values and comments
    # FIXME: this regex adds a '' to the end of comma terminated lists
    #   workaround in ``_handle_value``
    _valueexp = re.compile(r'''^
        (?:
            (?:
                (
                    (?:
                        (?:
                            (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
                            (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
                            (?:[^'",\#][^,\#]*?)    # unquoted
                        )
                        \s*,\s*                     # comma
                    )*      # match all list items ending in a comma (if any)
                )
                (
                    (?:".*?")|                      # double quotes
                    (?:'.*?')|                      # single quotes
                    (?:[^'",\#\s][^,]*?)|           # unquoted
                    (?:(?<!,))                      # Empty value
                )?          # last item in a list - or string value
            )|
            (,)             # alternatively a single comma - empty list
        )
        \s*(\#.*)?          # optional comment
        $''',
        re.VERBOSE)

    # use findall to get the members of a list value
    _listvalueexp = re.compile(r'''
        (
            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
            (?:[^'",\#].*?)       # unquoted
        )
        \s*,\s*                 # comma
        ''',
        re.VERBOSE)

    # this regexp is used for the value
    # when lists are switched off
    _nolistvalue = re.compile(r'''^
        (
            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
            (?:[^'"\#].*?)|     # unquoted
            (?:)                # Empty value
        )
        \s*(\#.*)?              # optional comment
        $''',
        re.VERBOSE)

    # regexes for finding triple quoted values on one line
    _single_line_single = re.compile(r"^'''(.*?)'''\s*(#.*)?$")
    _single_line_double = re.compile(r'^"""(.*?)"""\s*(#.*)?$')
    _multi_line_single = re.compile(r"^(.*?)'''\s*(#.*)?$")
    _multi_line_double = re.compile(r'^(.*?)"""\s*(#.*)?$')

    _triple_quote = {
        "'''": (_single_line_single, _multi_line_single),
        '"""': (_single_line_double, _multi_line_double),
    }

    # Used by the ``istrue`` Section method
    _bools = {
        'yes': True, 'no': False,
        'on': True, 'off': False,
        '1': True, '0': False,
        'true': True, 'false': False,
        }

    def __init__(self, infile=None, options=None, **kwargs):
        """
        Parse or create a config file object.

        ``ConfigObj(infile=None, options=None, **kwargs)``
        """
        if infile is None:
            infile = []
        if options is None:
            options = {}
        # keyword arguments take precedence over an options dictionary
        options.update(kwargs)
        # init the superclass
        Section.__init__(self, self, 0, self)
        #
        defaults = OPTION_DEFAULTS.copy()
        for entry in options.keys():
            if entry not in defaults.keys():
                raise TypeError, 'Unrecognised option "%s".' % entry
        # TODO: check the values too.
        #
        # Add any explicit options to the defaults
        defaults.update(options)
        #
        # initialise a few variables
        self.filename = None
        self._errors = []
        self.raise_errors = defaults['raise_errors']
        self.interpolation = defaults['interpolation']
        self.list_values = defaults['list_values']
        self.create_empty = defaults['create_empty']
        self.file_error = defaults['file_error']
        self.stringify = defaults['stringify']
        self.indent_type = defaults['indent_type']
        self.encoding = defaults['encoding']
        self.default_encoding = defaults['default_encoding']
        self.BOM = False
        self.newlines = None
        self.write_empty_values = defaults['write_empty_values']
        self.unrepr = defaults['unrepr']
        #
        self.initial_comment = []
        self.final_comment = []
        #
        if isinstance(infile, StringTypes):
            self.filename = infile
            if os.path.isfile(infile):
                infile = open(infile).read() or []
            elif self.file_error:
                # raise an error if the file doesn't exist
                raise IOError, 'Config file not found: "%s".' % self.filename
            else:
                # file doesn't already exist
                if self.create_empty:
                    # this is a good test that the filename specified
                    # isn't impossible - like on a non existent device
                    h = open(infile, 'w')
                    h.write('')
                    h.close()
                infile = []
        elif isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
            infile = list(infile)
        elif isinstance(infile, dict):
            # initialise self
            # the Section class handles creating subsections
            if isinstance(infile, ConfigObj):
                # get a copy of our ConfigObj
                infile = infile.dict()
            for entry in infile:
                self[entry] = infile[entry]
            del self._errors
            if defaults['configspec'] is not None:
                self._handle_configspec(defaults['configspec'])
            else:
                self.configspec = None
            return
        elif hasattr(infile, 'read'):
            # This supports file like objects
            infile = infile.read() or []
            # needs splitting into lines - but needs doing *after* decoding
            # in case it's not an 8 bit encoding
        else:
            raise TypeError, ('infile must be a filename,'
                ' file like object, or list of lines.')
        #
        if infile:
            # don't do it for the empty ConfigObj
            infile = self._handle_bom(infile)
            # infile is now *always* a list
            #
            # Set the newlines attribute (first line ending it finds)
            # and strip trailing '\n' or '\r' from lines
            for line in infile:
                if (not line) or (line[-1] not in '\r\n'):
                    continue
                for end in ('\r\n', '\n', '\r'):
                    if line.endswith(end):
                        self.newlines = end
                        break
                break
            infile = [line.rstrip('\r\n') for line in infile]
        #
        self._parse(infile)
        # if we had any errors, now is the time to raise them
        if self._errors:
            error = ConfigObjError("Parsing failed.")
            # set the errors attribute; it's a list of tuples:
            # (error_type, message, line_number)
            error.errors = self._errors
            # set the config attribute
            error.config = self
            raise error
        # delete private attributes
        del self._errors
        #
        if defaults['configspec'] is None:
            self.configspec = None
        else:
            self._handle_configspec(defaults['configspec'])

    def _handle_bom(self, infile):
        """
        Handle any BOM, and decode if necessary.

        If an encoding is specified, that *must* be used - but the BOM should
        still be removed (and the BOM attribute set).

        (If the encoding is wrongly specified, then a BOM for an alternative
        encoding won't be discovered or removed.)

        If an encoding is not specified, UTF8 or UTF16 BOM will be detected and
        removed. The BOM attribute will be set. UTF16 will be decoded to
        unicode.

        NOTE: This method must not be called with an empty ``infile``.

        Specifying the *wrong* encoding is likely to cause a
        ``UnicodeDecodeError``.

        ``infile`` must always be returned as a list of lines, but may be
        passed in as a single string.
        """
        if ((self.encoding is not None) and
            (self.encoding.lower() not in BOM_LIST)):
            # No need to check for a BOM
            # encoding specified doesn't have one
            # just decode
            return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
        #
        if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
            line = infile[0]
        else:
            line = infile
        if self.encoding is not None:
            # encoding explicitly supplied
            # And it could have an associated BOM
            # TODO: if encoding is just UTF16 - we ought to check for both
            # TODO: big endian and little endian versions.
            enc = BOM_LIST[self.encoding.lower()]
            if enc == 'utf_16':
                # For UTF16 we try big endian and little endian
                for BOM, (encoding, final_encoding) in BOMS.items():
                    if not final_encoding:
                        # skip UTF8
                        continue
                    if infile.startswith(BOM):
                        ### BOM discovered
                        ##self.BOM = True
                        # Don't need to remove BOM
                        return self._decode(infile, encoding)
                #
                # If we get this far, will *probably* raise a DecodeError
                # As it doesn't appear to start with a BOM
                return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
            #
            # Must be UTF8
            BOM = BOM_SET[enc]
            if not line.startswith(BOM):
                return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
            #
            newline = line[len(BOM):]
            #
            # BOM removed
            if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
                infile[0] = newline
            else:
                infile = newline
            self.BOM = True
            return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
        #
        # No encoding specified - so we need to check for UTF8/UTF16
        for BOM, (encoding, final_encoding) in BOMS.items():
            if not line.startswith(BOM):
                continue
            else:
                # BOM discovered
                self.encoding = final_encoding
                if not final_encoding:
                    self.BOM = True
                    # UTF8
                    # remove BOM
                    newline = line[len(BOM):]
                    if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
                        infile[0] = newline
                    else:
                        infile = newline
                    # UTF8 - don't decode
                    if isinstance(infile, StringTypes):
                        return infile.splitlines(True)
                    else:
                        return infile
                # UTF16 - have to decode
                return self._decode(infile, encoding)
        #
        # No BOM discovered and no encoding specified, just return
        if isinstance(infile, StringTypes):
            # infile read from a file will be a single string
            return infile.splitlines(True)
        else:
            return infile

    def _a_to_u(self, string):
        """Decode ascii strings to unicode if a self.encoding is specified."""
        if not self.encoding:
            return string
        else:
            return string.decode('ascii')

    def _decode(self, infile, encoding):
        """
        Decode infile to unicode. Using the specified encoding.

        if is a string, it also needs converting to a list.
        """
        if isinstance(infile, StringTypes):
            # can't be unicode
            # NOTE: Could raise a ``UnicodeDecodeError``
            return infile.decode(encoding).splitlines(True)
        for i, line in enumerate(infile):
            if not isinstance(line, unicode):
                # NOTE: The isinstance test here handles mixed lists of unicode/string
                # NOTE: But the decode will break on any non-string values
                # NOTE: Or could raise a ``UnicodeDecodeError``
                infile[i] = line.decode(encoding)
        return infile

    def _decode_element(self, line):
        """Decode element to unicode if necessary."""
        if not self.encoding:
            return line
        if isinstance(line, str) and self.default_encoding:
            return line.decode(self.default_encoding)
        return line

    def _str(self, value):
        """
        Used by ``stringify`` within validate, to turn non-string values
        into strings.
        """
        if not isinstance(value, StringTypes):
            return str(value)
        else:
            return value

    def _parse(self, infile):
        """
        Actually parse the config file

        Testing Interpolation

        >>> c = ConfigObj()
        >>> c['DEFAULT'] = {
        ...     'b': 'goodbye',
        ...     'userdir': 'c:\\\\home',
        ...     'c': '%(d)s',
        ...     'd': '%(c)s'
        ... }
        >>> c['section'] = {
        ...     'a': '%(datadir)s\\\\some path\\\\file.py',
        ...     'b': '%(userdir)s\\\\some path\\\\file.py',
        ...     'c': 'Yo %(a)s',
        ...     'd': '%(not_here)s',
        ...     'e': '%(c)s',
        ... }
        >>> c['section']['DEFAULT'] = {
        ...     'datadir': 'c:\\\\silly_test',
        ...     'a': 'hello - %(b)s',
        ... }
        >>> c['section']['a'] == 'c:\\\\silly_test\\\\some path\\\\file.py'
        1
        >>> c['section']['b'] == 'c:\\\\home\\\\some path\\\\file.py'
        1
        >>> c['section']['c'] == 'Yo hello - goodbye'
        1

        Switching Interpolation Off

        >>> c.interpolation = False
        >>> c['section']['a'] == '%(datadir)s\\\\some path\\\\file.py'
        1
        >>> c['section']['b'] == '%(userdir)s\\\\some path\\\\file.py'
        1
        >>> c['section']['c'] == 'Yo %(a)s'
        1

        Testing the interpolation errors.

        >>> c.interpolation = True
        >>> c['section']['d']
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        MissingInterpolationOption: missing option "not_here" in interpolation.
        >>> c['section']['e']
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        InterpolationDepthError: max interpolation depth exceeded in value "%(c)s".

        Testing our quoting.

        >>> i._quote('\"""\'\'\'')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        SyntaxError: EOF while scanning triple-quoted string
        >>> try:
        ...     i._quote('\\n', multiline=False)
        ... except ConfigObjError, e:
        ...    e.msg
        'Value "\\n" cannot be safely quoted.'
        >>> k._quote(' "\' ', multiline=False)
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        SyntaxError: EOL while scanning single-quoted string

        Testing with "stringify" off.
        >>> c.stringify = False
        >>> c['test'] = 1
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        TypeError: Value is not a string "1".

        Testing Empty values.
        >>> cfg_with_empty = '''
        ... k =
        ... k2 =# comment test
        ... val = test
        ... val2 = ,
        ... val3 = 1,
        ... val4 = 1, 2
        ... val5 = 1, 2, '''.splitlines()
        >>> cwe = ConfigObj(cfg_with_empty)
        >>> cwe == {'k': '', 'k2': '', 'val': 'test', 'val2': [],
        ...  'val3': ['1'], 'val4': ['1', '2'], 'val5': ['1', '2']}
        1
        >>> cwe = ConfigObj(cfg_with_empty, list_values=False)
        >>> cwe == {'k': '', 'k2': '', 'val': 'test', 'val2': ',',
        ...  'val3': '1,', 'val4': '1, 2', 'val5': '1, 2,'}
        1
        """
        temp_list_values = self.list_values
        if self.unrepr:
            self.list_values = False
        comment_list = []
        done_start = False
        this_section = self
        maxline = len(infile) - 1
        cur_index = -1
        reset_comment = False
        while cur_index < maxline:
            if reset_comment:
                comment_list = []
            cur_index += 1
            line = infile[cur_index]
            sline = line.strip()
            # do we have anything on the line ?
            if not sline or sline.startswith('#'):
                reset_comment = False
                comment_list.append(line)
                continue
            if not done_start:
                # preserve initial comment
                self.initial_comment = comment_list
                comment_list = []
                done_start = True
            reset_comment = True
            # first we check if it's a section marker
            mat = self._sectionmarker.match(line)
##            print >> sys.stderr, sline, mat
            if mat is not None:
                # is a section line
                (indent, sect_open, sect_name, sect_close, comment) = (
                    mat.groups())
                if indent and (self.indent_type is None):
                    self.indent_type = indent[0]
                cur_depth = sect_open.count('[')
                if cur_depth != sect_close.count(']'):
                    self._handle_error(
                        "Cannot compute the section depth at line %s.",
                        NestingError, infile, cur_index)
                    continue
                if cur_depth < this_section.depth:
                    # the new section is dropping back to a previous level
                    try:
                        parent = self._match_depth(
                            this_section,
                            cur_depth).parent
                    except SyntaxError:
                        self._handle_error(
                            "Cannot compute nesting level at line %s.",
                            NestingError, infile, cur_index)
                        continue
                elif cur_depth == this_section.depth:
                    # the new section is a sibling of the current section
                    parent = this_section.parent
                elif cur_depth == this_section.depth + 1:
                    # the new section is a child the current section
                    parent = this_section
                else:
                    self._handle_error(
                        "Section too nested at line %s.",
                        NestingError, infile, cur_index)
                #
                sect_name = self._unquote(sect_name)
                if parent.has_key(sect_name):
##                    print >> sys.stderr, sect_name
                    self._handle_error(
                        'Duplicate section name at line %s.',
                        DuplicateError, infile, cur_index)
                    continue
                # create the new section
                this_section = Section(
                    parent,
                    cur_depth,
                    self,
                    name=sect_name)
                parent[sect_name] = this_section
                parent.inline_comments[sect_name] = comment
                parent.comments[sect_name] = comment_list
##                print >> sys.stderr, parent[sect_name] is this_section
                continue
            #
            # it's not a section marker,
            # so it should be a valid ``key = value`` line
            mat = self._keyword.match(line)
##            print >> sys.stderr, sline, mat
            if mat is not None:
                # is a keyword value
                # value will include any inline comment
                (indent, key, value) = mat.groups()
                if indent and (self.indent_type is None):
                    self.indent_type = indent[0]
                # check for a multiline value
                if value[:3] in ['"""', "'''"]:
                    try:
                        (value, comment, cur_index) = self._multiline(
                            value, infile, cur_index, maxline)
                    except SyntaxError:
                        self._handle_error(
                            'Parse error in value at line %s.',
                            ParseError, infile, cur_index)
                        continue
                    else:
                        if self.unrepr:
                            value = unrepr(value)
                else:
                    # extract comment and lists
                    try:
                        (value, comment) = self._handle_value(value)
                    except SyntaxError:
                        self._handle_error(
                            'Parse error in value at line %s.',
                            ParseError, infile, cur_index)
                        continue
                #
##                print >> sys.stderr, sline
                key = self._unquote(key)
                if this_section.has_key(key):
                    self._handle_error(
                        'Duplicate keyword name at line %s.',
                        DuplicateError, infile, cur_index)
                    continue
                # add the key
##                print >> sys.stderr, this_section.name
                # we set unrepr because if we have got this far we will never
                # be creating a new section
                this_section.__setitem__(key, value, unrepr=True)
                this_section.inline_comments[key] = comment
                this_section.comments[key] = comment_list
##                print >> sys.stderr, key, this_section[key]
##                if this_section.name is not None:
##                    print >> sys.stderr, this_section
##                    print >> sys.stderr, this_section.parent
##                    print >> sys.stderr, this_section.parent[this_section.name]
                continue
            #
            # it neither matched as a keyword
            # or a section marker
            self._handle_error(
                'Invalid line at line "%s".',
                ParseError, infile, cur_index)
        if self.indent_type is None:
            # no indentation used, set the type accordingly
            self.indent_type = ''
        # preserve the final comment
        if not self and not self.initial_comment:
            self.initial_comment = comment_list
        elif not reset_comment:
            self.final_comment = comment_list
        self.list_values = temp_list_values

    def _match_depth(self, sect, depth):
        """
        Given a section and a depth level, walk back through the sections
        parents to see if the depth level matches a previous section.

        Return a reference to the right section,
        or raise a SyntaxError.
        """
        while depth < sect.depth:
            if sect is sect.parent:
                # we've reached the top level already
                raise SyntaxError
            sect = sect.parent
        if sect.depth == depth:
            return sect
        # shouldn't get here
        raise SyntaxError

    def _handle_error(self, text, ErrorClass, infile, cur_index):
        """
        Handle an error according to the error settings.

        Either raise the error or store it.
        The error will have occured at ``cur_index``
        """
        line = infile[cur_index]
        message = text % cur_index
        error = ErrorClass(message, cur_index, line)
        if self.raise_errors:
            # raise the error - parsing stops here
            raise error
        # store the error
        # reraise when parsing has finished
        self._errors.append(error)

    def _unquote(self, value):
        """Return an unquoted version of a value"""
        if (value[0] == value[-1]) and (value[0] in ('"', "'")):
            value = value[1:-1]
        return value

    def _quote(self, value, multiline=True):
        """
        Return a safely quoted version of a value.

        Raise a ConfigObjError if the value cannot be safely quoted.
        If multiline is ``True`` (default) then use triple quotes
        if necessary.

        Don't quote values that don't need it.
        Recursively quote members of a list and return a comma joined list.
        Multiline is ``False`` for lists.
        Obey list syntax for empty and single member lists.

        If ``list_values=False`` then the value is only quoted if it contains
        a ``\n`` (is multiline).

        If ``write_empty_values`` is set, and the value is an empty string, it
        won't be quoted.
        """
        if multiline and self.write_empty_values and value == '':
            # Only if multiline is set, so that it is used for values not
            # keys, and not values that are part of a list
            return ''
        if multiline and isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
            if not value:
                return ','
            elif len(value) == 1:
                return self._quote(value[0], multiline=False) + ','
            return ', '.join([self._quote(val, multiline=False)
                for val in value])
        if not isinstance(value, StringTypes):
            if self.stringify:
                value = str(value)
            else:
                raise TypeError, 'Value "%s" is not a string.' % value
        squot = "'%s'"
        dquot = '"%s"'
        noquot = "%s"
        wspace_plus = ' \r\t\n\v\t\'"'
        tsquot = '"""%s"""'
        tdquot = "'''%s'''"
        if not value:
            return '""'
        if (not self.list_values and '\n' not in value) or not (multiline and
                ((("'" in value) and ('"' in value)) or ('\n' in value))):
            if not self.list_values:
                # we don't quote if ``list_values=False``
                quot = noquot
            # for normal values either single or double quotes will do
            elif '\n' in value:
                # will only happen if multiline is off - e.g. '\n' in key
                raise ConfigObjError, ('Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' %
                    value)
            elif ((value[0] not in wspace_plus) and
                    (value[-1] not in wspace_plus) and
                    (',' not in value)):
                quot = noquot
            else:
                if ("'" in value) and ('"' in value):
                    raise ConfigObjError, (
                        'Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' % value)
                elif '"' in value:
                    quot = squot
                else:
                    quot = dquot
        else:
            # if value has '\n' or "'" *and* '"', it will need triple quotes
            if (value.find('"""') != -1) and (value.find("'''") != -1):
                raise ConfigObjError, (
                    'Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' % value)
            if value.find('"""') == -1:
                quot = tdquot
            else:
                quot = tsquot
        return quot % value

    def _handle_value(self, value):
        """
        Given a value string, unquote, remove comment,
        handle lists. (including empty and single member lists)

        Testing list values.

        >>> testconfig3 = '''
        ... a = ,
        ... b = test,
        ... c = test1, test2   , test3
        ... d = test1, test2, test3,
        ... '''
        >>> d = ConfigObj(testconfig3.split('\\n'), raise_errors=True)
        >>> d['a'] == []
        1
        >>> d['b'] == ['test']
        1
        >>> d['c'] == ['test1', 'test2', 'test3']
        1
        >>> d['d'] == ['test1', 'test2', 'test3']
        1

        Testing with list values off.

        >>> e = ConfigObj(
        ...     testconfig3.split('\\n'),
        ...     raise_errors=True,
        ...     list_values=False)
        >>> e['a'] == ','
        1
        >>> e['b'] == 'test,'
        1
        >>> e['c'] == 'test1, test2   , test3'
        1
        >>> e['d'] == 'test1, test2, test3,'
        1

        Testing creating from a dictionary.

        >>> f = {
        ...     'key1': 'val1',
        ...     'key2': 'val2',
        ...     'section 1': {
        ...         'key1': 'val1',
        ...         'key2': 'val2',
        ...         'section 1b': {
        ...             'key1': 'val1',
        ...             'key2': 'val2',
        ...         },
        ...     },
        ...     'section 2': {
        ...         'key1': 'val1',
        ...         'key2': 'val2',
        ...         'section 2b': {
        ...             'key1': 'val1',
        ...             'key2': 'val2',
        ...         },
        ...     },
        ...      'key3': 'val3',
        ... }
        >>> g = ConfigObj(f)
        >>> f == g
        1

        Testing we correctly detect badly built list values (4 of them).

        >>> testconfig4 = '''
        ... config = 3,4,,
        ... test = 3,,4
        ... fish = ,,
        ... dummy = ,,hello, goodbye
        ... '''
        >>> try:
        ...     ConfigObj(testconfig4.split('\\n'))
        ... except ConfigObjError, e:
        ...     len(e.errors)
        4

        Testing we correctly detect badly quoted values (4 of them).

        >>> testconfig5 = '''
        ... config = "hello   # comment
        ... test = 'goodbye
        ... fish = 'goodbye   # comment
        ... dummy = "hello again
        ... '''
        >>> try:
        ...     ConfigObj(testconfig5.split('\\n'))
        ... except ConfigObjError, e:
        ...     len(e.errors)
        4
        """
        # do we look for lists in values ?
        if not self.list_values:
            mat = self._nolistvalue.match(value)
            if mat is None:
                raise SyntaxError
            (value, comment) = mat.groups()
            if not self.unrepr:
                # NOTE: we don't unquote here
                return (value, comment)
            else:
                return (unrepr(value), comment)
        mat = self._valueexp.match(value)
        if mat is None:
            # the value is badly constructed, probably badly quoted,
            # or an invalid list
            raise SyntaxError
        (list_values, single, empty_list, comment) = mat.groups()
        if (list_values == '') and (single is None):
            # change this if you want to accept empty values
            raise SyntaxError
        # NOTE: note there is no error handling from here if the regex
        # is wrong: then incorrect values will slip through
        if empty_list is not None:
            # the single comma - meaning an empty list
            return ([], comment)
        if single is not None:
            # handle empty values
            if list_values and not single:
                # FIXME: the '' is a workaround because our regex now matches
                #   '' at the end of a list if it has a trailing comma
                single = None
            else:
                single = single or '""'
                single = self._unquote(single)
        if list_values == '':
            # not a list value
            return (single, comment)
        the_list = self._listvalueexp.findall(list_values)
        the_list = [self._unquote(val) for val in the_list]
        if single is not None:
            the_list += [single]
        return (the_list, comment)

    def _multiline(self, value, infile, cur_index, maxline):
        """
        Extract the value, where we are in a multiline situation

        Testing multiline values.

        >>> i == {
        ...     'name4': ' another single line value ',
        ...     'multi section': {
        ...         'name4': '\\n        Well, this is a\\n        multiline '
        ...             'value\\n        ',
        ...         'name2': '\\n        Well, this is a\\n        multiline '
        ...             'value\\n        ',
        ...         'name3': '\\n        Well, this is a\\n        multiline '
        ...             'value\\n        ',
        ...         'name1': '\\n        Well, this is a\\n        multiline '
        ...             'value\\n        ',
        ...     },
        ...     'name2': ' another single line value ',
        ...     'name3': ' a single line value ',
        ...     'name1': ' a single line value ',
        ... }
        1
        """
        quot = value[:3]
        newvalue = value[3:]
        single_line = self._triple_quote[quot][0]
        multi_line = self._triple_quote[quot][1]
        mat = single_line.match(value)
        if mat is not None:
            retval = list(mat.groups())
            retval.append(cur_index)
            return retval
        elif newvalue.find(quot) != -1:
            # somehow the triple quote is missing
            raise SyntaxError
        #
        while cur_index < maxline:
            cur_index += 1
            newvalue += '\n'
            line = infile[cur_index]
            if line.find(quot) == -1:
                newvalue += line
            else:
                # end of multiline, process it
                break
        else:
            # we've got to the end of the config, oops...
            raise SyntaxError
        mat = multi_line.match(line)
        if mat is None:
            # a badly formed line
            raise SyntaxError
        (value, comment) = mat.groups()
        return (newvalue + value, comment, cur_index)

    def _handle_configspec(self, configspec):
        """Parse the configspec."""
        # FIXME: Should we check that the configspec was created with the
        #   correct settings ? (i.e. ``list_values=False``)
        if not isinstance(configspec, ConfigObj):
            try:
                configspec = ConfigObj(
                    configspec,
                    raise_errors=True,
                    file_error=True,
                    list_values=False)
            except ConfigObjError, e:
                # FIXME: Should these errors have a reference
                # to the already parsed ConfigObj ?
                raise ConfigspecError('Parsing configspec failed: %s' % e)
            except IOError, e:
                raise IOError('Reading configspec failed: %s' % e)
        self._set_configspec_value(configspec, self)

    def _set_configspec_value(self, configspec, section):
        """Used to recursively set configspec values."""
        if '__many__' in configspec.sections:
            section.configspec['__many__'] = configspec['__many__']
            if len(configspec.sections) > 1:
                # FIXME: can we supply any useful information here ?
                raise RepeatSectionError
        if hasattr(configspec, 'initial_comment'):
            section._configspec_initial_comment = configspec.initial_comment
            section._configspec_final_comment = configspec.final_comment
            section._configspec_encoding = configspec.encoding
            section._configspec_BOM = configspec.BOM
            section._configspec_newlines = configspec.newlines
            section._configspec_indent_type = configspec.indent_type
        for entry in configspec.scalars:
            section._configspec_comments[entry] = configspec.comments[entry]
            section._configspec_inline_comments[entry] = (
                configspec.inline_comments[entry])
            section.configspec[entry] = configspec[entry]
            section._order.append(entry)
        for entry in configspec.sections:
            if entry == '__many__':
                continue
            section._cs_section_comments[entry] = configspec.comments[entry]
            section._cs_section_inline_comments[entry] = (
                configspec.inline_comments[entry])
            if not section.has_key(entry):
                section[entry] = {}
            self._set_configspec_value(configspec[entry], section[entry])

    def _handle_repeat(self, section, configspec):
        """Dynamically assign configspec for repeated section."""
        try:
            section_keys = configspec.sections
            scalar_keys = configspec.scalars
        except AttributeError:
            section_keys = [entry for entry in configspec
                                if isinstance(configspec[entry], dict)]
            scalar_keys = [entry for entry in configspec
                                if not isinstance(configspec[entry], dict)]
        if '__many__' in section_keys and len(section_keys) > 1:
            # FIXME: can we supply any useful information here ?
            raise RepeatSectionError
        scalars = {}
        sections = {}
        for entry in scalar_keys:
            val = configspec[entry]
            scalars[entry] = val
        for entry in section_keys:
            val = configspec[entry]
            if entry == '__many__':
                scalars[entry] = val
                continue
            sections[entry] = val
        #
        section.configspec = scalars
        for entry in sections:
            if not section.has_key(entry):
                section[entry] = {}
            self._handle_repeat(section[entry], sections[entry])

    def _write_line(self, indent_string, entry, this_entry, comment):
        """Write an individual line, for the write method"""
        # NOTE: the calls to self._quote here handles non-StringType values.
        if not self.unrepr:
            val = self._decode_element(self._quote(this_entry))
        else:
            val = repr(this_entry)
        return '%s%s%s%s%s' % (
            indent_string,
            self._decode_element(self._quote(entry, multiline=False)),
            self._a_to_u(' = '),
            val,
            self._decode_element(comment))

    def _write_marker(self, indent_string, depth, entry, comment):
        """Write a section marker line"""
        return '%s%s%s%s%s' % (
            indent_string,
            self._a_to_u('[' * depth),
            self._quote(self._decode_element(entry), multiline=False),
            self._a_to_u(']' * depth),
            self._decode_element(comment))

    def _handle_comment(self, comment):
        """
        Deal with a comment.

        >>> filename = a.filename
        >>> a.filename = None
        >>> values = a.write()
        >>> index = 0
        >>> while index < 23:
        ...     index += 1
        ...     line = values[index-1]
        ...     assert line.endswith('# comment ' + str(index))
        >>> a.filename = filename

        >>> start_comment = ['# Initial Comment', '', '#']
        >>> end_comment = ['', '#', '# Final Comment']
        >>> newconfig = start_comment + testconfig1.split('\\n') + end_comment
        >>> nc = ConfigObj(newconfig)
        >>> nc.initial_comment
        ['# Initial Comment', '', '#']
        >>> nc.final_comment
        ['', '#', '# Final Comment']
        >>> nc.initial_comment == start_comment
        1
        >>> nc.final_comment == end_comment
        1
        """
        if not comment:
            return ''
        if self.indent_type == '\t':
            start = self._a_to_u('\t')
        else:
            start = self._a_to_u(' ' * NUM_INDENT_SPACES)
        if not comment.startswith('#'):
            start += self._a_to_u('# ')
        return (start + comment)

    def _compute_indent_string(self, depth):
        """
        Compute the indent string, according to current indent_type and depth
        """
        if self.indent_type == '':
            # no indentation at all
            return ''
        if self.indent_type == '\t':
            return '\t' * depth
        if self.indent_type == ' ':
            return ' ' * NUM_INDENT_SPACES * depth
        raise SyntaxError

    # Public methods

    def write(self, outfile=None, section=None):
        """
        Write the current ConfigObj as a file

        tekNico: FIXME: use StringIO instead of real files

        >>> filename = a.filename
        >>> a.filename = 'test.ini'
        >>> a.write()
        >>> a.filename = filename
        >>> a == ConfigObj('test.ini', raise_errors=True)
        1
        >>> os.remove('test.ini')
        >>> b.filename = 'test.ini'
        >>> b.write()
        >>> b == ConfigObj('test.ini', raise_errors=True)
        1
        >>> os.remove('test.ini')
        >>> i.filename = 'test.ini'
        >>> i.write()
        >>> i == ConfigObj('test.ini', raise_errors=True)
        1
        >>> os.remove('test.ini')
        >>> a = ConfigObj()
        >>> a['DEFAULT'] = {'a' : 'fish'}
        >>> a['a'] = '%(a)s'
        >>> a.write()
        ['a = %(a)s', '[DEFAULT]', 'a = fish']
        """
        if self.indent_type is None:
            # this can be true if initialised from a dictionary
            self.indent_type = DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE
        #
        out = []
        cs = self._a_to_u('#')
        csp = self._a_to_u('# ')
        if section is None:
            int_val = self.interpolation
            self.interpolation = False
            section = self
            for line in self.initial_comment:
                line = self._decode_element(line)
                stripped_line = line.strip()
                if stripped_line and not stripped_line.startswith(cs):
                    line = csp + line
                out.append(line)
        #
        indent_string = self._a_to_u(
            self._compute_indent_string(section.depth))
        for entry in (section.scalars + section.sections):
            if entry in section.defaults:
                # don't write out default values
                continue
            for comment_line in section.comments[entry]:
                comment_line = self._decode_element(comment_line.lstrip())
                if comment_line and not comment_line.startswith(cs):
                    comment_line = csp + comment_line
                out.append(indent_string + comment_line)
            this_entry = section[entry]
            comment = self._handle_comment(section.inline_comments[entry])
            #
            if isinstance(this_entry, dict):
                # a section
                out.append(self._write_marker(
                    indent_string,
                    this_entry.depth,
                    entry,
                    comment))
                out.extend(self.write(section=this_entry))
            else:
                out.append(self._write_line(
                    indent_string,
                    entry,
                    this_entry,
                    comment))
        #
        if section is self:
            for line in self.final_comment:
                line = self._decode_element(line)
                stripped_line = line.strip()
                if stripped_line and not stripped_line.startswith(cs):
                    line = csp + line
                out.append(line)
            self.interpolation = int_val
        #
        if section is not self:
            return out
        #
        if (self.filename is None) and (outfile is None):
            # output a list of lines
            # might need to encode
            # NOTE: This will *screw* UTF16, each line will start with the BOM
            if self.encoding:
                out = [l.encode(self.encoding) for l in out]
            if (self.BOM and ((self.encoding is None) or
                (BOM_LIST.get(self.encoding.lower()) == 'utf_8'))):
                # Add the UTF8 BOM
                if not out:
                    out.append('')
                out[0] = BOM_UTF8 + out[0]
            return out
        #
        # Turn the list to a string, joined with correct newlines
        output = (self._a_to_u(self.newlines or os.linesep)
            ).join(out)
        if self.encoding:
            output = output.encode(self.encoding)
        if (self.BOM and ((self.encoding is None) or
            (BOM_LIST.get(self.encoding.lower()) == 'utf_8'))):
            # Add the UTF8 BOM
            output = BOM_UTF8 + output
        if outfile is not None:
            outfile.write(output)
        else:
            h = open(self.filename, 'wb')
            h.write(output)
            h.close()

    def validate(self, validator, preserve_errors=False, copy=False,
        section=None):
        """
        Test the ConfigObj against a configspec.

        It uses the ``validator`` object from *validate.py*.

        To run ``validate`` on the current ConfigObj, call: ::

            test = config.validate(validator)

        (Normally having previously passed in the configspec when the ConfigObj
        was created - you can dynamically assign a dictionary of checks to the
        ``configspec`` attribute of a section though).

        It returns ``True`` if everything passes, or a dictionary of
        pass/fails (True/False). If every member of a subsection passes, it
        will just have the value ``True``. (It also returns ``False`` if all
        members fail).

        In addition, it converts the values from strings to their native
        types if their checks pass (and ``stringify`` is set).

        If ``preserve_errors`` is ``True`` (``False`` is default) then instead
        of a marking a fail with a ``False``, it will preserve the actual
        exception object. This can contain info about the reason for failure.
        For example the ``VdtValueTooSmallError`` indeicates that the value
        supplied was too small. If a value (or section) is missing it will
        still be marked as ``False``.

        You must have the validate module to use ``preserve_errors=True``.

        You can then use the ``flatten_errors`` function to turn your nested
        results dictionary into a flattened list of failures - useful for
        displaying meaningful error messages.

        >>> try:
        ...     from validate import Validator
        ... except ImportError:
        ...     print >> sys.stderr, 'Cannot import the Validator object, skipping the related tests'
        ... else:
        ...     config = '''
        ...     test1=40
        ...     test2=hello
        ...     test3=3
        ...     test4=5.0
        ...     [section]
        ...         test1=40
        ...         test2=hello
        ...         test3=3
        ...         test4=5.0
        ...         [[sub section]]
        ...             test1=40
        ...             test2=hello
        ...             test3=3
        ...             test4=5.0
        ... '''.split('\\n')
        ...     configspec = '''
        ...     test1= integer(30,50)
        ...     test2= string
        ...     test3=integer
        ...     test4=float(6.0)
        ...     [section ]
        ...         test1=integer(30,50)
        ...         test2=string
        ...         test3=integer
        ...         test4=float(6.0)
        ...         [[sub section]]
        ...             test1=integer(30,50)
        ...             test2=string
        ...             test3=integer
        ...             test4=float(6.0)
        ...     '''.split('\\n')
        ...     val = Validator()
        ...     c1 = ConfigObj(config, configspec=configspec)
        ...     test = c1.validate(val)
        ...     test == {
        ...         'test1': True,
        ...         'test2': True,
        ...         'test3': True,
        ...         'test4': False,
        ...         'section': {
        ...             'test1': True,
        ...             'test2': True,
        ...             'test3': True,
        ...             'test4': False,
        ...             'sub section': {
        ...                 'test1': True,
        ...                 'test2': True,
        ...                 'test3': True,
        ...                 'test4': False,
        ...             },
        ...         },
        ...     }
        1
        >>> val.check(c1.configspec['test4'], c1['test4'])
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        VdtValueTooSmallError: the value "5.0" is too small.

        >>> val_test_config = '''
        ...     key = 0
        ...     key2 = 1.1
        ...     [section]
        ...     key = some text
        ...     key2 = 1.1, 3.0, 17, 6.8
        ...         [[sub-section]]
        ...         key = option1
        ...         key2 = True'''.split('\\n')
        >>> val_test_configspec = '''
        ...     key = integer
        ...     key2 = float
        ...     [section]
        ...     key = string
        ...     key2 = float_list(4)
        ...        [[sub-section]]
        ...        key = option(option1, option2)
        ...        key2 = boolean'''.split('\\n')
        >>> val_test = ConfigObj(val_test_config, configspec=val_test_configspec)
        >>> val_test.validate(val)
        1
        >>> val_test['key'] = 'text not a digit'
        >>> val_res = val_test.validate(val)
        >>> val_res == {'key2': True, 'section': True, 'key': False}
        1
        >>> configspec = '''
        ...     test1=integer(30,50, default=40)
        ...     test2=string(default="hello")
        ...     test3=integer(default=3)
        ...     test4=float(6.0, default=6.0)
        ...     [section ]
        ...         test1=integer(30,50, default=40)
        ...         test2=string(default="hello")
        ...         test3=integer(default=3)
        ...         test4=float(6.0, default=6.0)
        ...         [[sub section]]
        ...             test1=integer(30,50, default=40)
        ...             test2=string(default="hello")
        ...             test3=integer(default=3)
        ...             test4=float(6.0, default=6.0)
        ...     '''.split('\\n')
        >>> default_test = ConfigObj(['test1=30'], configspec=configspec)
        >>> default_test
        {'test1': '30', 'section': {'sub section': {}}}
        >>> default_test.validate(val)
        1
        >>> default_test == {
        ...     'test1': 30,
        ...     'test2': 'hello',
        ...     'test3': 3,
        ...     'test4': 6.0,
        ...     'section': {
        ...         'test1': 40,
        ...         'test2': 'hello',
        ...         'test3': 3,
        ...         'test4': 6.0,
        ...         'sub section': {
        ...             'test1': 40,
        ...             'test3': 3,
        ...             'test2': 'hello',
        ...             'test4': 6.0,
        ...         },
        ...     },
        ... }
        1

        Now testing with repeated sections : BIG TEST

        >>> repeated_1 = '''
        ... [dogs]
        ...     [[__many__]] # spec for a dog
        ...         fleas = boolean(default=True)
        ...         tail = option(long, short, default=long)
        ...         name = string(default=rover)
        ...         [[[__many__]]]  # spec for a puppy
        ...             name = string(default="son of rover")
        ...             age = float(default=0.0)
        ... [cats]
        ...     [[__many__]] # spec for a cat
        ...         fleas = boolean(default=True)
        ...         tail = option(long, short, default=short)
        ...         name = string(default=pussy)
        ...         [[[__many__]]] # spec for a kitten
        ...             name = string(default="son of pussy")
        ...             age = float(default=0.0)
        ...         '''.split('\\n')
        >>> repeated_2 = '''
        ... [dogs]
        ...
        ...     # blank dogs with puppies
        ...     # should be filled in by the configspec
        ...     [[dog1]]
        ...         [[[puppy1]]]
        ...         [[[puppy2]]]
        ...         [[[puppy3]]]
        ...     [[dog2]]
        ...         [[[puppy1]]]
        ...         [[[puppy2]]]
        ...         [[[puppy3]]]
        ...     [[dog3]]
        ...         [[[puppy1]]]
        ...         [[[puppy2]]]
        ...         [[[puppy3]]]
        ... [cats]
        ...
        ...     # blank cats with kittens
        ...     # should be filled in by the configspec
        ...     [[cat1]]
        ...         [[[kitten1]]]
        ...         [[[kitten2]]]
        ...         [[[kitten3]]]
        ...     [[cat2]]
        ...         [[[kitten1]]]
        ...         [[[kitten2]]]
        ...         [[[kitten3]]]
        ...     [[cat3]]
        ...         [[[kitten1]]]
        ...         [[[kitten2]]]
        ...         [[[kitten3]]]
        ... '''.split('\\n')
        >>> repeated_3 = '''
        ... [dogs]
        ...
        ...     [[dog1]]
        ...     [[dog2]]
        ...     [[dog3]]
        ... [cats]
        ...
        ...     [[cat1]]
        ...     [[cat2]]
        ...     [[cat3]]
        ... '''.split('\\n')
        >>> repeated_4 = '''
        ... [__many__]
        ...
        ...     name = string(default=Michael)
        ...     age = float(default=0.0)
        ...     sex = option(m, f, default=m)
        ... '''.split('\\n')
        >>> repeated_5 = '''
        ... [cats]
        ... [[__many__]]
        ...     fleas = boolean(default=True)
        ...     tail = option(long, short, default=short)
        ...     name = string(default=pussy)
        ...     [[[description]]]
        ...         height = float(default=3.3)
        ...         weight = float(default=6)
        ...         [[[[coat]]]]
        ...             fur = option(black, grey, brown, "tortoise shell", default=black)
        ...             condition = integer(0,10, default=5)
        ... '''.split('\\n')
        >>> from validate import Validator
        >>> val= Validator()
        >>> repeater = ConfigObj(repeated_2, configspec=repeated_1)
        >>> repeater.validate(val)
        1
        >>> repeater == {
        ...     'dogs': {
        ...         'dog1': {
        ...             'fleas': True,
        ...             'tail': 'long',
        ...             'name': 'rover',
        ...             'puppy1': {'name': 'son of rover', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'puppy2': {'name': 'son of rover', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'puppy3': {'name': 'son of rover', 'age': 0.0},
        ...         },
        ...         'dog2': {
        ...             'fleas': True,
        ...             'tail': 'long',
        ...             'name': 'rover',
        ...             'puppy1': {'name': 'son of rover', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'puppy2': {'name': 'son of rover', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'puppy3': {'name': 'son of rover', 'age': 0.0},
        ...         },
        ...         'dog3': {
        ...             'fleas': True,
        ...             'tail': 'long',
        ...             'name': 'rover',
        ...             'puppy1': {'name': 'son of rover', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'puppy2': {'name': 'son of rover', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'puppy3': {'name': 'son of rover', 'age': 0.0},
        ...         },
        ...     },
        ...     'cats': {
        ...         'cat1': {
        ...             'fleas': True,
        ...             'tail': 'short',
        ...             'name': 'pussy',
        ...             'kitten1': {'name': 'son of pussy', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'kitten2': {'name': 'son of pussy', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'kitten3': {'name': 'son of pussy', 'age': 0.0},
        ...         },
        ...         'cat2': {
        ...             'fleas': True,
        ...             'tail': 'short',
        ...             'name': 'pussy',
        ...             'kitten1': {'name': 'son of pussy', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'kitten2': {'name': 'son of pussy', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'kitten3': {'name': 'son of pussy', 'age': 0.0},
        ...         },
        ...         'cat3': {
        ...             'fleas': True,
        ...             'tail': 'short',
        ...             'name': 'pussy',
        ...             'kitten1': {'name': 'son of pussy', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'kitten2': {'name': 'son of pussy', 'age': 0.0},
        ...             'kitten3': {'name': 'son of pussy', 'age': 0.0},
        ...         },
        ...     },
        ... }
        1
        >>> repeater = ConfigObj(repeated_3, configspec=repeated_1)
        >>> repeater.validate(val)
        1
        >>> repeater == {
        ...     'cats': {
        ...         'cat1': {'fleas': True, 'tail': 'short', 'name': 'pussy'},
        ...         'cat2': {'fleas': True, 'tail': 'short', 'name': 'pussy'},
        ...         'cat3': {'fleas': True, 'tail': 'short', 'name': 'pussy'},
        ...     },
        ...     'dogs': {
        ...         'dog1': {'fleas': True, 'tail': 'long', 'name': 'rover'},
        ...         'dog2': {'fleas': True, 'tail': 'long', 'name': 'rover'},
        ...         'dog3': {'fleas': True, 'tail': 'long', 'name': 'rover'},
        ...     },
        ... }
        1
        >>> repeater = ConfigObj(configspec=repeated_4)
        >>> repeater['Michael'] = {}
        >>> repeater.validate(val)
        1
        >>> repeater == {
        ...     'Michael': {'age': 0.0, 'name': 'Michael', 'sex': 'm'},
        ... }
        1
        >>> repeater = ConfigObj(repeated_3, configspec=repeated_5)
        >>> repeater == {
        ...     'dogs': {'dog1': {}, 'dog2': {}, 'dog3': {}},
        ...     'cats': {'cat1': {}, 'cat2': {}, 'cat3': {}},
        ... }
        1
        >>> repeater.validate(val)
        1
        >>> repeater == {
        ...     'dogs': {'dog1': {}, 'dog2': {}, 'dog3': {}},
        ...     'cats': {
        ...         'cat1': {
        ...             'fleas': True,
        ...             'tail': 'short',
        ...             'name': 'pussy',
        ...             'description': {
        ...                 'weight': 6.0,
        ...                 'height': 3.2999999999999998,
        ...                 'coat': {'fur': 'black', 'condition': 5},
        ...             },
        ...         },
        ...         'cat2': {
        ...             'fleas': True,
        ...             'tail': 'short',
        ...             'name': 'pussy',
        ...             'description': {
        ...                 'weight': 6.0,
        ...                 'height': 3.2999999999999998,
        ...                 'coat': {'fur': 'black', 'condition': 5},
        ...             },
        ...         },
        ...         'cat3': {
        ...             'fleas': True,
        ...             'tail': 'short',
        ...             'name': 'pussy',
        ...             'description': {
        ...                 'weight': 6.0,
        ...                 'height': 3.2999999999999998,
        ...                 'coat': {'fur': 'black', 'condition': 5},
        ...             },
        ...         },
        ...     },
        ... }
        1

        Test that interpolation is preserved for validated string values.
        Also check that interpolation works in configspecs.
        >>> t = ConfigObj()
        >>> t['DEFAULT'] = {}
        >>> t['DEFAULT']['test'] = 'a'
        >>> t['test'] = '%(test)s'
        >>> t['test']
        'a'
        >>> v = Validator()
        >>> t.configspec = {'test': 'string'}
        >>> t.validate(v)
        1
        >>> t.interpolation = False
        >>> t
        {'test': '%(test)s', 'DEFAULT': {'test': 'a'}}
        >>> specs = [
        ...    'interpolated string  = string(default="fuzzy-%(man)s")',
        ...    '[DEFAULT]',
        ...    'man = wuzzy',
        ...    ]
        >>> c = ConfigObj(configspec=specs)
        >>> c.validate(v)
        1
        >>> c['interpolated string']
        'fuzzy-wuzzy'

        FIXME: Above tests will fail if we couldn't import Validator (the ones
        that don't raise errors will produce different output and still fail as
        tests)

        Test
        """
        if section is None:
            if self.configspec is None:
                raise ValueError, 'No configspec supplied.'
            if preserve_errors:
                if VdtMissingValue is None:
                    raise ImportError('Missing validate module.')
            section = self
        #
        spec_section = section.configspec
        if copy and hasattr(section, '_configspec_initial_comment'):
            section.initial_comment = section._configspec_initial_comment
            section.final_comment = section._configspec_final_comment
            section.encoding = section._configspec_encoding
            section.BOM = section._configspec_BOM
            section.newlines = section._configspec_newlines
            section.indent_type = section._configspec_indent_type
        if '__many__' in section.configspec:
            many = spec_section['__many__']
            # dynamically assign the configspecs
            # for the sections below
            for entry in section.sections:
                self._handle_repeat(section[entry], many)
        #
        out = {}
        ret_true = True
        ret_false = True
        order = [k for k in section._order if k in spec_section]
        order += [k for k in spec_section if k not in order]
        for entry in order:
            if entry == '__many__':
                continue
            if (not entry in section.scalars) or (entry in section.defaults):
                # missing entries
                # or entries from defaults
                missing = True
                val = None
                if copy and not entry in section.scalars:
                    # copy comments
                    section.comments[entry] = (
                        section._configspec_comments.get(entry, []))
                    section.inline_comments[entry] = (
                        section._configspec_inline_comments.get(entry, ''))
                #
            else:
                missing = False
                val = section[entry]
            try:
                check = validator.check(spec_section[entry],
                                        val,
                                        missing=missing
                                        )
            except validator.baseErrorClass, e:
                if not preserve_errors or isinstance(e, VdtMissingValue):
                    out[entry] = False
                else:
                    # preserve the error
                    out[entry] = e
                    ret_false = False
                ret_true = False
            else:
                ret_false = False
                out[entry] = True
                if self.stringify or missing:
                    # if we are doing type conversion
                    # or the value is a supplied default
                    if not self.stringify:
                        if isinstance(check, (list, tuple)):
                            # preserve lists
                            check = [self._str(item) for item in check]
                        elif missing and check is None:
                            # convert the None from a default to a ''
                            check = ''
                        else:
                            check = self._str(check)
                    if (check != val) or missing:
                        section[entry] = check
                if not copy and missing and entry not in section.defaults:
                    section.defaults.append(entry)
        #
        # Missing sections will have been created as empty ones when the
        # configspec was read.
        for entry in section.sections:
            # FIXME: this means DEFAULT is not copied in copy mode
            if section is self and entry == 'DEFAULT':
                continue
            if copy:
                section.comments[entry] = section._cs_section_comments[entry]
                section.inline_comments[entry] = (
                    section._cs_section_inline_comments[entry])
            check = self.validate(validator, preserve_errors=preserve_errors,
                copy=copy, section=section[entry])
            out[entry] = check
            if check == False:
                ret_true = False
            elif check == True:
                ret_false = False
            else:
                ret_true = False
                ret_false = False
        #
        if ret_true:
            return True
        elif ret_false:
            return False
        else:
            return out

02638 class SimpleVal(object):
    """
    A simple validator.
    Can be used to check that all members expected are present.

    To use it, provide a configspec with all your members in (the value given
    will be ignored). Pass an instance of ``SimpleVal`` to the ``validate``
    method of your ``ConfigObj``. ``validate`` will return ``True`` if all
    members are present, or a dictionary with True/False meaning
    present/missing. (Whole missing sections will be replaced with ``False``)

    >>> val = SimpleVal()
    >>> config = '''
    ... test1=40
    ... test2=hello
    ... test3=3
    ... test4=5.0
    ... [section]
    ... test1=40
    ... test2=hello
    ... test3=3
    ... test4=5.0
    ...     [[sub section]]
    ...     test1=40
    ...     test2=hello
    ...     test3=3
    ...     test4=5.0
    ... '''.split('\\n')
    >>> configspec = '''
    ... test1=''
    ... test2=''
    ... test3=''
    ... test4=''
    ... [section]
    ... test1=''
    ... test2=''
    ... test3=''
    ... test4=''
    ...     [[sub section]]
    ...     test1=''
    ...     test2=''
    ...     test3=''
    ...     test4=''
    ... '''.split('\\n')
    >>> o = ConfigObj(config, configspec=configspec)
    >>> o.validate(val)
    1
    >>> o = ConfigObj(configspec=configspec)
    >>> o.validate(val)
    0
    """

    def __init__(self):
        self.baseErrorClass = ConfigObjError

02693     def check(self, check, member, missing=False):
        """A dummy check method, always returns the value unchanged."""
        if missing:
            raise self.baseErrorClass
        return member

# Check / processing functions for options
def flatten_errors(cfg, res, levels=None, results=None):
    """
    An example function that will turn a nested dictionary of results
    (as returned by ``ConfigObj.validate``) into a flat list.

    ``cfg`` is the ConfigObj instance being checked, ``res`` is the results
    dictionary returned by ``validate``.

    (This is a recursive function, so you shouldn't use the ``levels`` or
    ``results`` arguments - they are used by the function.

    Returns a list of keys that failed. Each member of the list is a tuple :
    ::

        ([list of sections...], key, result)

    If ``validate`` was called with ``preserve_errors=False`` (the default)
    then ``result`` will always be ``False``.

    *list of sections* is a flattened list of sections that the key was found
    in.

    If the section was missing then key will be ``None``.

    If the value (or section) was missing then ``result`` will be ``False``.

    If ``validate`` was called with ``preserve_errors=True`` and a value
    was present, but failed the check, then ``result`` will be the exception
    object returned. You can use this as a string that describes the failure.

    For example *The value "3" is of the wrong type*.

    # FIXME: is the ordering of the output arbitrary ?
    >>> import validate
    >>> vtor = validate.Validator()
    >>> my_ini = '''
    ...     option1 = True
    ...     [section1]
    ...     option1 = True
    ...     [section2]
    ...     another_option = Probably
    ...     [section3]
    ...     another_option = True
    ...     [[section3b]]
    ...     value = 3
    ...     value2 = a
    ...     value3 = 11
    ...     '''
    >>> my_cfg = '''
    ...     option1 = boolean()
    ...     option2 = boolean()
    ...     option3 = boolean(default=Bad_value)
    ...     [section1]
    ...     option1 = boolean()
    ...     option2 = boolean()
    ...     option3 = boolean(default=Bad_value)
    ...     [section2]
    ...     another_option = boolean()
    ...     [section3]
    ...     another_option = boolean()
    ...     [[section3b]]
    ...     value = integer
    ...     value2 = integer
    ...     value3 = integer(0, 10)
    ...         [[[section3b-sub]]]
    ...         value = string
    ...     [section4]
    ...     another_option = boolean()
    ...     '''
    >>> cs = my_cfg.split('\\n')
    >>> ini = my_ini.split('\\n')
    >>> cfg = ConfigObj(ini, configspec=cs)
    >>> res = cfg.validate(vtor, preserve_errors=True)
    >>> errors = []
    >>> for entry in flatten_errors(cfg, res):
    ...     section_list, key, error = entry
    ...     section_list.insert(0, '[root]')
    ...     if key is not None:
    ...        section_list.append(key)
    ...     else:
    ...         section_list.append('[missing]')
    ...     section_string = ', '.join(section_list)
    ...     errors.append((section_string, ' = ', error))
    >>> errors.sort()
    >>> for entry in errors:
    ...     print entry[0], entry[1], (entry[2] or 0)
    [root], option2  =  0
    [root], option3  =  the value "Bad_value" is of the wrong type.
    [root], section1, option2  =  0
    [root], section1, option3  =  the value "Bad_value" is of the wrong type.
    [root], section2, another_option  =  the value "Probably" is of the wrong type.
    [root], section3, section3b, section3b-sub, [missing]  =  0
    [root], section3, section3b, value2  =  the value "a" is of the wrong type.
    [root], section3, section3b, value3  =  the value "11" is too big.
    [root], section4, [missing]  =  0
    """
    if levels is None:
        # first time called
        levels = []
        results = []
    if res is True:
        return results
    if res is False:
        results.append((levels[:], None, False))
        if levels:
            levels.pop()
        return results
    for (key, val) in res.items():
        if val == True:
            continue
        if isinstance(cfg.get(key), dict):
            # Go down one level
            levels.append(key)
            flatten_errors(cfg[key], val, levels, results)
            continue
        results.append((levels[:], key, val))
    #
    # Go up one level
    if levels:
        levels.pop()
    #
    return results


# FIXME: test error code for badly built multiline values
# FIXME: test handling of StringIO
# FIXME: test interpolation with writing

def _doctest():
    """
    Dummy function to hold some of the doctests.

    >>> a.depth
    0
    >>> a == {
    ...     'key2': 'val',
    ...     'key1': 'val',
    ...     'lev1c': {
    ...         'lev2c': {
    ...             'lev3c': {
    ...                 'key1': 'val',
    ...             },
    ...         },
    ...     },
    ...     'lev1b': {
    ...         'key2': 'val',
    ...         'key1': 'val',
    ...         'lev2ba': {
    ...             'key1': 'val',
    ...         },
    ...         'lev2bb': {
    ...             'key1': 'val',
    ...         },
    ...     },
    ...     'lev1a': {
    ...         'key2': 'val',
    ...         'key1': 'val',
    ...     },
    ... }
    1
    >>> b.depth
    0
    >>> b == {
    ...     'key3': 'val3',
    ...     'key2': 'val2',
    ...     'key1': 'val1',
    ...     'section 1': {
    ...         'keys11': 'val1',
    ...         'keys13': 'val3',
    ...         'keys12': 'val2',
    ...     },
    ...     'section 2': {
    ...         'section 2 sub 1': {
    ...             'fish': '3',
    ...     },
    ...     'keys21': 'val1',
    ...     'keys22': 'val2',
    ...     'keys23': 'val3',
    ...     },
    ... }
    1
    >>> t = '''
    ... 'a' = b # !"$%^&*(),::;'@~#= 33
    ... "b" = b #= 6, 33
    ... ''' .split('\\n')
    >>> t2 = ConfigObj(t)
    >>> assert t2 == {'a': 'b', 'b': 'b'}
    >>> t2.inline_comments['b'] = ''
    >>> del t2['a']
    >>> assert t2.write() == ['','b = b', '']

    # Test ``list_values=False`` stuff
    >>> c = '''
    ...     key1 = no quotes
    ...     key2 = 'single quotes'
    ...     key3 = "double quotes"
    ...     key4 = "list", 'with', several, "quotes"
    ...     '''
    >>> cfg = ConfigObj(c.splitlines(), list_values=False)
    >>> cfg == {'key1': 'no quotes', 'key2': "'single quotes'",
    ... 'key3': '"double quotes"',
    ... 'key4': '"list", \\'with\\', several, "quotes"'
    ... }
    1
    >>> cfg = ConfigObj(list_values=False)
    >>> cfg['key1'] = 'Multiline\\nValue'
    >>> cfg['key2'] = '''"Value" with 'quotes' !'''
    >>> cfg.write()
    ["key1 = '''Multiline\\nValue'''", 'key2 = "Value" with \\'quotes\\' !']
    >>> cfg.list_values = True
    >>> cfg.write() == ["key1 = '''Multiline\\nValue'''",
    ... 'key2 = \\'\\'\\'"Value" with \\'quotes\\' !\\'\\'\\'']
    1

    Test flatten_errors:

    >>> from validate import Validator, VdtValueTooSmallError
    >>> config = '''
    ...     test1=40
    ...     test2=hello
    ...     test3=3
    ...     test4=5.0
    ...     [section]
    ...         test1=40
    ...         test2=hello
    ...         test3=3
    ...         test4=5.0
    ...         [[sub section]]
    ...             test1=40
    ...             test2=hello
    ...             test3=3
    ...             test4=5.0
    ... '''.split('\\n')
    >>> configspec = '''
    ...     test1= integer(30,50)
    ...     test2= string
    ...     test3=integer
    ...     test4=float(6.0)
    ...     [section ]
    ...         test1=integer(30,50)
    ...         test2=string
    ...         test3=integer
    ...         test4=float(6.0)
    ...         [[sub section]]
    ...             test1=integer(30,50)
    ...             test2=string
    ...             test3=integer
    ...             test4=float(6.0)
    ...     '''.split('\\n')
    >>> val = Validator()
    >>> c1 = ConfigObj(config, configspec=configspec)
    >>> res = c1.validate(val)
    >>> flatten_errors(c1, res) == [([], 'test4', False), (['section',
    ...     'sub section'], 'test4', False), (['section'], 'test4', False)]
    True
    >>> res = c1.validate(val, preserve_errors=True)
    >>> check = flatten_errors(c1, res)
    >>> check[0][:2]
    ([], 'test4')
    >>> check[1][:2]
    (['section', 'sub section'], 'test4')
    >>> check[2][:2]
    (['section'], 'test4')
    >>> for entry in check:
    ...     isinstance(entry[2], VdtValueTooSmallError)
    ...     print str(entry[2])
    True
    the value "5.0" is too small.
    True
    the value "5.0" is too small.
    True
    the value "5.0" is too small.

    Test unicode handling, BOM, write witha file like object and line endings :
    >>> u_base = '''
    ... # initial comment
    ...     # inital comment 2
    ...
    ... test1 = some value
    ... # comment
    ... test2 = another value    # inline comment
    ... # section comment
    ... [section]    # inline comment
    ...     test = test    # another inline comment
    ...     test2 = test2
    ...
    ... # final comment
    ... # final comment2
    ... '''
    >>> u = u_base.encode('utf_8').splitlines(True)
    >>> u[0] = BOM_UTF8 + u[0]
    >>> uc = ConfigObj(u)
    >>> uc.encoding = None
    >>> uc.BOM == True
    1
    >>> uc == {'test1': 'some value', 'test2': 'another value',
    ... 'section': {'test': 'test', 'test2': 'test2'}}
    1
    >>> uc = ConfigObj(u, encoding='utf_8', default_encoding='latin-1')
    >>> uc.BOM
    1
    >>> isinstance(uc['test1'], unicode)
    1
    >>> uc.encoding
    'utf_8'
    >>> uc.newlines
    '\\n'
    >>> uc['latin1'] = "This costs lot's of "
    >>> a_list = uc.write()
    >>> len(a_list)
    15
    >>> isinstance(a_list[0], str)
    1
    >>> a_list[0].startswith(BOM_UTF8)
    1
    >>> u = u_base.replace('\\n', '\\r\\n').encode('utf_8').splitlines(True)
    >>> uc = ConfigObj(u)
    >>> uc.newlines
    '\\r\\n'
    >>> uc.newlines = '\\r'
    >>> from cStringIO import StringIO
    >>> file_like = StringIO()
    >>> uc.write(file_like)
    >>> file_like.seek(0)
    >>> uc2 = ConfigObj(file_like)
    >>> uc2 == uc
    1
    >>> uc2.filename == None
    1
    >>> uc2.newlines == '\\r'
    1

    Test validate in copy mode
    >>> a = '''
    ... # Initial Comment
    ...
    ... key1 = string(default=Hello)    # comment 1
    ...
    ... # section comment
    ... [section] # inline comment
    ... # key1 comment
    ... key1 = integer(default=6) # an integer value
    ... # key2 comment
    ... key2 = boolean(default=True) # a boolean
    ...
    ...     # subsection comment
    ...     [[sub-section]] # inline comment
    ...     # another key1 comment
    ...     key1 = float(default=3.0) # a float'''.splitlines()
    >>> b = ConfigObj(configspec=a)
    >>> b.validate(val, copy=True)
    1
    >>> b.write() == ['',
    ... '# Initial Comment',
    ... '',
    ... 'key1 = Hello    # comment 1',
    ... '',
    ... '# section comment',
    ... '[section]    # inline comment',
    ... '    # key1 comment',
    ... '    key1 = 6    # an integer value',
    ... '    # key2 comment',
    ... '    key2 = True    # a boolean',
    ... '    ',
    ... '    # subsection comment',
    ... '    [[sub-section]]    # inline comment',
    ... '        # another key1 comment',
    ... '        key1 = 3.0    # a float']
    1

    Test Writing Empty Values
    >>> a = '''
    ...     key1 =
    ...     key2 =# a comment'''
    >>> b = ConfigObj(a.splitlines())
    >>> b.write()
    ['', 'key1 = ""', 'key2 = ""    # a comment']
    >>> b.write_empty_values = True
    >>> b.write()
    ['', 'key1 = ', 'key2 =     # a comment']

    Test unrepr when reading
    >>> a = '''
    ...     key1 = (1, 2, 3)    # comment
    ...     key2 = True
    ...     key3 = 'a string'
    ...     key4 = [1, 2, 3, 'a mixed list']
    ... '''.splitlines()
    >>> b = ConfigObj(a, unrepr=True)
    >>> b == {'key1': (1, 2, 3),
    ... 'key2': True,
    ... 'key3': 'a string',
    ... 'key4': [1, 2, 3, 'a mixed list']}
    1

    Test unrepr when writing
    >>> c = ConfigObj(b.write(), unrepr=True)
    >>> c == b
    1

    Test unrepr with multiline values
    >>> a = '''k = \"""{
    ... 'k1': 3,
    ... 'k2': 6.0}\"""
    ... '''.splitlines()
    >>> c = ConfigObj(a, unrepr=True)
    >>> c == {'k': {'k1': 3, 'k2': 6.0}}
    1

    Test unrepr with a dictionary
    >>> a = 'k = {"a": 1}'.splitlines()
    >>> c = ConfigObj(a, unrepr=True)
    >>> type(c['k']) == dict
    1
    """

if __name__ == '__main__':
    # run the code tests in doctest format
    #
    testconfig1 = """\
    key1= val    # comment 1
    key2= val    # comment 2
    # comment 3
    [lev1a]     # comment 4
    key1= val    # comment 5
    key2= val    # comment 6
    # comment 7
    [lev1b]    # comment 8
    key1= val    # comment 9
    key2= val    # comment 10
    # comment 11
        [[lev2ba]]    # comment 12
        key1= val    # comment 13
        # comment 14
        [[lev2bb]]    # comment 15
        key1= val    # comment 16
    # comment 17
    [lev1c]    # comment 18
    # comment 19
        [[lev2c]]    # comment 20
        # comment 21
            [[[lev3c]]]    # comment 22
            key1 = val    # comment 23"""
    #
    testconfig2 = """\
                        key1 = 'val1'
                        key2 =   "val2"
                        key3 = val3
                        ["section 1"] # comment
                        keys11 = val1
                        keys12 = val2
                        keys13 = val3
                        [section 2]
                        keys21 = val1
                        keys22 = val2
                        keys23 = val3

                            [['section 2 sub 1']]
                            fish = 3
    """
    #
    testconfig6 = '''
    name1 = """ a single line value """ # comment
    name2 = \''' another single line value \''' # comment
    name3 = """ a single line value """
    name4 = \''' another single line value \'''
        [ "multi section" ]
        name1 = """
        Well, this is a
        multiline value
        """
        name2 = \'''
        Well, this is a
        multiline value
        \'''
        name3 = """
        Well, this is a
        multiline value
        """     # a comment
        name4 = \'''
        Well, this is a
        multiline value
        \'''  # I guess this is a comment too
    '''
    #
    import doctest
    m = sys.modules.get('__main__')
    globs = m.__dict__.copy()
    a = ConfigObj(testconfig1.split('\n'), raise_errors=True)
    b = ConfigObj(testconfig2.split('\n'), raise_errors=True)
    i = ConfigObj(testconfig6.split('\n'), raise_errors=True)
    globs.update({
        'INTP_VER': INTP_VER,
        'a': a,
        'b': b,
        'i': i,
    })
    doctest.testmod(m, globs=globs)

"""
    BUGS
    ====

    None known.

    TODO
    ====

    Better support for configuration from multiple files, including tracking
    *where* the original file came from and writing changes to the correct
    file.

    Make ``newline`` an option (as well as an attribute) ?

    ``UTF16`` encoded files, when returned as a list of lines, will have the
    BOM at the start of every line. Should this be removed from all but the
    first line ?

    Option to set warning type for unicode decode ? (Defaults to strict).

    A method to optionally remove uniform indentation from multiline values.
    (do as an example of using ``walk`` - along with string-escape)

    Should the results dictionary from validate be an ordered dictionary if
    `odict <http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/odict.html>`_ is available ?

    Implement a better ``__repr__`` ? (``ConfigObj({})``)

    Implement some of the sequence methods (which include slicing) from the
    newer ``odict`` ?

    ISSUES
    ======

    There is currently no way to specify the encoding of a configspec.

    When using ``copy`` mode for validation, it won't copy ``DEFAULT``
    sections. This is so that you *can* use interpolation in configspec
    files.

    ``validate`` doesn't report *extra* values or sections.

    You can't have a keyword with the same name as a section (in the same
    section). They are both dictionary keys - so they would overlap.

    ConfigObj doesn't quote and unquote values if ``list_values=False``.
    This means that leading or trailing whitespace in values will be lost when
    writing. (Unless you manually quote).

    Interpolation checks first the 'DEFAULT' subsection of the current
    section, next it checks the 'DEFAULT' section of the parent section,
    last it checks the 'DEFAULT' section of the main section.

    Logically a 'DEFAULT' section should apply to all subsections of the *same
    parent* - this means that checking the 'DEFAULT' subsection in the
    *current section* is not necessarily logical ?

    Does it matter that we don't support the ':' divider, which is supported
    by ``ConfigParser`` ?

    String interpolation and validation don't play well together. When
    validation changes type it sets the value. This will correctly fetch the
    value using interpolation - but then overwrite the interpolation reference.
    If the value is unchanged by validation (it's a string) - but other types
    will be.


    List Value Syntax
    =================

    List values allow you to specify multiple values for a keyword. This
    maps to a list as the resulting Python object when parsed.

    The syntax for lists is easy. A list is a comma separated set of values.
    If these values contain quotes, the hash mark, or commas, then the values
    can be surrounded by quotes. e.g. : ::

        keyword = value1, 'value 2', "value 3"

    If a value needs to be a list, but only has one member, then you indicate
    this with a trailing comma. e.g. : ::

        keyword = "single value",

    If a value needs to be a list, but it has no members, then you indicate
    this with a single comma. e.g. : ::

        keyword = ,     # an empty list

    Using triple quotes it will be possible for single values to contain
    newlines and *both* single quotes and double quotes. Triple quotes aren't
    allowed in list values. This means that the members of list values can't
    contain carriage returns (or line feeds :-) or both quote values.

    CHANGELOG
    =========

    2006/03/20
    ----------

    Empty values are now valid syntax. They are read as an empty string ``''``.
    (``key =``, or ``key = # comment``.)

    ``validate`` now honours the order of the configspec.

    Added the ``copy`` mode to validate.

    Fixed bug where files written on windows could be given '\r\r\n' line
    terminators.

    Fixed bug where last occuring comment line could be interpreted as the
    final comment if the last line isn't terminated.

    Fixed bug where nested list values would be flattened when ``write`` is
    called. Now sub-lists have a string representation written instead.

    Deprecated ``encode`` and ``decode`` methods instead.

    You can now pass in a COnfigObj instance as a configspec (remember to read
    the file using ``list_values=False``).

    2006/02/04
    ----------

    Removed ``BOM_UTF8`` from ``__all__``.

    The ``BOM`` attribute has become a boolean. (Defaults to ``False``.) It can
    be ``True`` for the ``UTF16/UTF8`` encodings.

    File like objects no longer need a ``seek`` attribute.

    ConfigObj no longer keeps a reference to file like objects. Instead the
    ``write`` method takes a file like object as an optional argument. (Which
    will be used in preference of the ``filename`` attribute if htat exists as
    well.)

    Full unicode support added. New options/attributes ``encoding``,
    ``default_encoding``.

    utf16 files decoded to unicode.

    If ``BOM`` is ``True``, but no encoding specified, then the utf8 BOM is
    written out at the start of the file. (It will normally only be ``True`` if
    the utf8 BOM was found when the file was read.)

    File paths are *not* converted to absolute paths, relative paths will
    remain relative as the ``filename`` attribute.

    Fixed bug where ``final_comment`` wasn't returned if ``write`` is returning
    a list of lines.

    2006/01/31
    ----------

    Added ``True``, ``False``, and ``enumerate`` if they are not defined.
    (``True`` and ``False`` are needed for *early* versions of Python 2.2,
    ``enumerate`` is needed for all versions ofPython 2.2)

    Deprecated ``istrue``, replaced it with ``as_bool``.

    Added ``as_int`` and ``as_float``.

    utf8 and utf16 BOM handled in an endian agnostic way.

    2005/12/14
    ----------

    Validation no longer done on the 'DEFAULT' section (only in the root
    level). This allows interpolation in configspecs.

    Change in validation syntax implemented in validate 0.2.1

    4.1.0

    2005/12/10
    ----------

    Added ``merge``, a recursive update.

    Added ``preserve_errors`` to ``validate`` and the ``flatten_errors``
    example function.

    Thanks to Matthew Brett for suggestions and helping me iron out bugs.

    Fixed bug where a config file is *all* comment, the comment will now be
    ``initial_comment`` rather than ``final_comment``.

    2005/12/02
    ----------

    Fixed bug in ``create_empty``. Thanks to Paul Jimenez for the report.

    2005/11/04
    ----------

    Fixed bug in ``Section.walk`` when transforming names as well as values.

    Added the ``istrue`` method. (Fetches the boolean equivalent of a string
    value).

    Fixed ``list_values=False`` - they are now only quoted/unquoted if they
    are multiline values.

    List values are written as ``item, item`` rather than ``item,item``.

    4.0.1

    2005/10/09
    ----------

    Fixed typo in ``write`` method. (Testing for the wrong value when resetting
    ``interpolation``).

    4.0.0 Final

    2005/09/16
    ----------

    Fixed bug in ``setdefault`` - creating a new section *wouldn't* return
    a reference to the new section.

    2005/09/09
    ----------

    Removed ``PositionError``.

    Allowed quotes around keys as documented.

    Fixed bug with commas in comments. (matched as a list value)

    Beta 5

    2005/09/07
    ----------

    Fixed bug in initialising ConfigObj from a ConfigObj.

    Changed the mailing list address.

    Beta 4

    2005/09/03
    ----------

    Fixed bug in ``Section.__delitem__`` oops.

    2005/08/28
    ----------

    Interpolation is switched off before writing out files.

    Fixed bug in handling ``StringIO`` instances. (Thanks to report from
    "Gustavo Niemeyer" <gustavo@niemeyer.net>)

    Moved the doctests from the ``__init__`` method to a separate function.
    (For the sake of IDE calltips).

    Beta 3

    2005/08/26
    ----------

    String values unchanged by validation *aren't* reset. This preserves
    interpolation in string values.

    2005/08/18
    ----------

    None from a default is turned to '' if stringify is off - because setting
    a value to None raises an error.

    Version 4.0.0-beta2

    2005/08/16
    ----------

    By Nicola Larosa

    Actually added the RepeatSectionError class ;-)

    2005/08/15
    ----------

    If ``stringify`` is off - list values are preserved by the ``validate``
    method. (Bugfix)

    2005/08/14
    ----------

    By Michael Foord

    Fixed ``simpleVal``.

    Added ``RepeatSectionError`` error if you have additional sections in a
    section with a ``__many__`` (repeated) section.

    By Nicola Larosa

    Reworked the ConfigObj._parse, _handle_error and _multiline methods:
    mutated the self._infile, self._index and self._maxline attributes into
    local variables and method parameters

    Reshaped the ConfigObj._multiline method to better reflect its semantics

    Changed the "default_test" test in ConfigObj.validate to check the fix for
    the bug in validate.Validator.check

    2005/08/13
    ----------

    By Nicola Larosa

    Updated comments at top

    2005/08/11
    ----------

    By Michael Foord

    Implemented repeated sections.

    By Nicola Larosa

    Added test for interpreter version: raises RuntimeError if earlier than
    2.2

    2005/08/10
    ----------

    By Michael Foord

    Implemented default values in configspecs.

    By Nicola Larosa

    Fixed naked except: clause in validate that was silencing the fact
    that Python2.2 does not have dict.pop

    2005/08/08
    ----------

    By Michael Foord

    Bug fix causing error if file didn't exist.

    2005/08/07
    ----------

    By Nicola Larosa

    Adjusted doctests for Python 2.2.3 compatibility

    2005/08/04
    ----------

    By Michael Foord

    Added the inline_comments attribute

    We now preserve and rewrite all comments in the config file

    configspec is now a section attribute

    The validate method changes values in place

    Added InterpolationError

    The errors now have line number, line, and message attributes. This
    simplifies error handling

    Added __docformat__

    2005/08/03
    ----------

    By Michael Foord

    Fixed bug in Section.pop (now doesn't raise KeyError if a default value
    is specified)

    Replaced ``basestring`` with ``types.StringTypes``

    Removed the ``writein`` method

    Added __version__

    2005/07/29
    ----------

    By Nicola Larosa

    Indentation in config file is not significant anymore, subsections are
    designated by repeating square brackets

    Adapted all tests and docs to the new format

    2005/07/28
    ----------

    By Nicola Larosa

    Added more tests

    2005/07/23
    ----------

    By Nicola Larosa

    Reformatted final docstring in ReST format, indented it for easier folding

    Code tests converted to doctest format, and scattered them around
    in various docstrings

    Walk method rewritten using scalars and sections attributes

    2005/07/22
    ----------

    By Nicola Larosa

    Changed Validator and SimpleVal "test" methods to "check"

    More code cleanup

    2005/07/21
    ----------

    Changed Section.sequence to Section.scalars and Section.sections

    Added Section.configspec

    Sections in the root section now have no extra indentation

    Comments now better supported in Section and preserved by ConfigObj

    Comments also written out

    Implemented initial_comment and final_comment

    A scalar value after a section will now raise an error

    2005/07/20
    ----------

    Fixed a couple of bugs

    Can now pass a tuple instead of a list

    Simplified dict and walk methods

    Added __str__ to Section

    2005/07/10
    ----------

    By Nicola Larosa

    More code cleanup

    2005/07/08
    ----------

    The stringify option implemented. On by default.

    2005/07/07
    ----------

    Renamed private attributes with a single underscore prefix.

    Changes to interpolation - exceeding recursion depth, or specifying a
    missing value, now raise errors.

    Changes for Python 2.2 compatibility. (changed boolean tests - removed
    ``is True`` and ``is False``)

    Added test for duplicate section and member (and fixed bug)

    2005/07/06
    ----------

    By Nicola Larosa

    Code cleanup

    2005/07/02
    ----------

    Version 0.1.0

    Now properly handles values including comments and lists.

    Better error handling.

    String interpolation.

    Some options implemented.

    You can pass a Section a dictionary to initialise it.

    Setting a Section member to a dictionary will create a Section instance.

    2005/06/26
    ----------

    Version 0.0.1

    Experimental reader.

    A reasonably elegant implementation - a basic reader in 160 lines of code.

    *A programming language is a medium of expression.* - Paul Graham
"""


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